Ahead of forming new govt., Modi submits resignation
Topic: GS –II: Constitution and Polity
A day after Prime Minister Narendra Modi was re-elected with a thumping majority, the process of putting in place the new government began, with Ministers of the Union Cabinet meeting and passing a resolution to dissolve the 16th Lok Sabha and tendering their resignations.
More in news:
- Modi called on President Ramnath Kovind and handed over his resignation, along with that of the Union Cabinet. The resignations were accepted and Mr. Modi has been asked to continue till a new government, again under him, takes charge.
- The NDA will also be holding a meeting of its parliamentary party at Parliament House on Saturday evening to elect Mr. Modi as its leader.
- All NDA leaders and elected Members of Parliament will be attending this meeting, which will be addressed by Mr. Modi.
| is dissolution of Lok Sabha?
· In India, the Lok Sabha has a five-year term, but can be dissolved earlier.
· According to Article 83(2) of the Constitution, completion of five years from the first day of its meeting amounts to dissolution of the Lower House. In this case, an election is held to elect the new Members of Parliament.
· The Lower House can also be dissolved earlier by the President on the advice of the Prime Minister.
· It can also be dissolved if the President feels that no viable government can be formed after the resignation or fall of a regime.
NOTE: The Rajya Sabha is a permanent house and is not subject to dissolution.
Higher education to get a boost with ₹1.5 lakh crore action plan
Topic: GS–II: Social Justice, Education
The Ministry of Human Resource Development plans to launch an ambitious ₹1.5 lakh crore action plan to improve the quality and accessibility of higher education over the next five years.
More in news:
- This is being described as the implementation plan for the National Education Policy, a 2014 poll promise from the BJP which is also likely to be released in a week’s time, after five years of repeated delays and extensions.
- The last NEP was released in 1986, with a revision in 1992.
- While the country has been in election mode, the 80 experts was working on the EQUIP project over the last two months, to bring transformational change to the system.
- EQUIP stands for the Education Quality Upgradation and Inclusion Programme and was crafted by ten committees led by experts within the government such as NITI Aayog CEO Amitabh Kant, principal scientific advisor K. Vijay Raghavan and former revenue secretary Hasmukh Adhia, as well as some corporate chiefs.
- The ten committees have drafted strategy to improve access to higher education, especially for underserved communities; improve the gross enrolment ration; improve teaching and learning processes; build educational infrastructure; improve the quality of research and innovation; use technology and online learning tools; and work on accreditation systems, governance structures and financing.
Supreme Court gets four new judges
Topic: GS –II: Constitution and Polity
Four new judges were sworn in on Friday at the Supreme Court, two of whom will go on to be the Chief Justices of India in the line of seniority.
- Justice B.R. Gavai
- Justice Surya Kant
- Justices Aniruddha Bose
- S. Bopanna
- Justice B.R. Gavai will become the CJI for over six months in 2025. He will be the second Chief Justice of India from the Scheduled Caste community after Justice (Retd.) K.G. Balakrishnan.
- Justice Surya Kant will succeed Justice Gavai as the CJI in November 2025. He will remain in office till February 2027.
- The two other judges sworn in on Friday are Jharkhand High Court and Gauhati High Court Chief Justices Aniruddha Bose and A.S. Bopanna.
- On May 8, the Collegium led by Chief Justice Ranjan Gogoi had refused the government’s request to reconsider the elevation of these two judges to the apex court.
- The Collegium’s reiteration had made it binding on the government to clear their appointments.
- The Supreme Court will now function with its full sanctioned strength of 31 judges.
Collegium System for appointment of judges:
· The collegium recommends judges for the High Courts and the Supreme Court.
· The Collegium is headed by the Chief Justice of India and comprises of the four other senior-most judges of the Supreme Court. The decisions of the collegium are made through voting and the majority view prevails in case of difference of opinion.
· Article 124(2) provides that the Judges of the Supreme Court are appointed by the President after consultation with such number of the Judges of the Supreme Court and of the High Courts in the States as the President may deem necessary for the purpose.
· Article 217 of the Indian Constitution states that the Judge of a High Court shall be appointed by the President consultation with the Chief Justice of India, the Governor of the State, and, in the case of appointment of a Judge other than the Chief Justice, the Chief Justice of the High Court.
How Collegium came into existence?
· The system of appointment and transfer of judges by collegium has evolved through judgments of the Supreme Court, and not by an act of the Parliament or by a provision of the Constitution, which are famously referred as Three-Judge Case.
· In the First Judges Case of 1980, the Supreme Court had declared that there was no need to provide primacy for the opinion of the Chief Justice of India while recommending a candidate to the President.
· This judgment was over-ruled in 1993 when the nine-judge bench ruled in favour of granting primacy to the Chief Justice of India in appointing the key members of the top judicial brass. This is referred to as second judge case.
· Things were clarified in the third judge case which was the Presidential reference to the Supreme Court on what the term “consultation”, implies which the President was required to do with judges before selecting a judge, referred to in the Constitution. In reply, SC laid down guidelines for the functioning of the collegium system.
· As a result in the process of appointment of Judges to the High Courts and Supreme Courts, the role of the President is reduced to the ceremonial participant.
The attempt by the central government to constitute the National Judicial Appointments Commission through constitutional amendment act as per the recommendations of the Justice MN Venkatachaliah Commission was also quashed by the Supreme Court as unconstitutional.
Centre bans terror outfit based out of Bangladesh
Topic: GS -III: Security
Bangladesh based terror outfit- the Jamaat-ul-Mujahideen Bangladesh (JMB) banned by the Centre under the anti-terror law UAPA.
More in news:
- JMB allegedly involved in the 2016 terror attack at a cafe in Bangladesh’s capital city Dhaka was declared as an unlawful association by the Ministry of Home Affairs on Friday.
- The outfit was planning to set up permanent bases within ten kilometres along Bangladesh border in several districts of West Beny, Assam and Tripura.
- The group planned to sread its network in South India with an overarching motive to establish Caliphate in the Indian subcontinent.
- The outfit has committed and promoted acts of terrorism and has been engaged in radicalisation and recruitment of youths for terrorist activities in India.
- Therefore, the Jamaat-ul-Mujahideen Bangladesh or Jamaat-ul-Mujahideen India or Jamaat-ul-Mujahideen Hindustan and all its manifestations have been inserted in the First Schedule to the Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act, 1967.
|Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act (UAPA)
· Aim: prevention of unlawful activities associations in India.
· Objective: to make powers available for dealing with activities directed against the integrity and sovereignty of India.
· It framed in 1967 and amended twice, first in 2008 and then in 2012.
· It makes it a crime to support any secessionist movement or to support claims by a foreign power to what India claims as its territory.
· IT provide definition of terrorism.
· It empowers the government to declare an organisation as ‘terrorist’ and ban it.
· It allows detention without a charge-sheet for up to 180 days and police custody can be up to 30 days.
· It authorises the creation of special courts, with wide discretion to hold in-camera proceedings (closed-door hearings) and use secret witnesses.
News in Brief:
Odisha tribal woman to be youngest-ever MP
- Chandrani Murmu, 25 years, 11 months old has won the Keonjhar Lok Sabha seat (reserved for the Scheduled Tribes) on Biju Janata Dal (BJD) ticket. She will enter the Lok Sabha as the youngest member in the Lower House’s history.
- Until now, the record was held by Dushyant Chautala, who, at 26, represented the Hisar seat i in the 16th Lok Sabha.
DRDO test-fires guided bomb from Sukhoi
- The Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) successfully test fired an indigenously-developed 500 kg class guided bomb from a Sukhoi combat jet at Pokhran in Rajasthan.
- The defence ministry said the guided bomb achieved the desired range and hit the target with high precision.
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