Growth Rate of Exports
India’s exports have faced a very challenging period in recent years, on account of developments arising from the global financial crisis of 2008-09, which accentuated after 2013-14, when the world economy experienced a major trade slowdown.
- After achieving a turnaround from the initial shock, exports came under immense pressure again in the post 2013-14 period due to accentuation of the global economic and financial crisis in the second phase when countries like China also got adversely affected.
- However, since then exports have been growing on a secular basis since 2016-17 for almost three years and total exports reached a new peak of more than half a trillion dollars, for the first time.
- India’s overall exports (merchandise and services) during last 5 years are given below:
|Years||Export (Value in USD Billion)||% Change|
Government has taken following key measures for promotion of exports:
- A new Foreign Trade Policy (FTP) 2015-20 was launched on 1stApril 2015. The policy, inter alia, rationalised the earlier export promotion schemes and introduced two new schemes, namely Merchandise Exports from India Scheme (MEIS) for improving export of goods and ‘Services Exports from India Scheme (SEIS)’ for increasing exports of services. Duty credit scrips issued under these schemes were made fully transferable.
- The Mid-term Review of the FTP 2015-20 was undertaken on 5th December, 2017. Incentive rates for labour intensive / MSME sectors were increased by 2% with a financial implication of Rs 8,450 crore per year.
- A new Logistics Division was created in the Department of Commerce to coordinate integrated development of the logistics sector. India’s rankin World Bank’s Logistics Performance Index moved up from 54 in 2014 to 44 in 2018.
- Interest Equalization Scheme on pre and post shipment rupee export credit was introduced from 1.4.2015 providing interest equalisation at 3% for labour intensive MSME sectors. The rate was increased to 5% for MSME sectors with effect from 2.11.2018 and merchant exporters were covered under the scheme with effect from 2.1.2019.
- Various measures for improving ease of doing business were taken. India’s rank in World Bank ‘Ease of doing business’ ranking improved from 142 in 2014 to 77 in 2018 with the rank in ‘trading across borders’ moving up from 122 to 80.
- A new scheme called “Trade Infrastructure for Export Scheme (TIES)” was launched with effect from 1stApril 2017 to address the export infrastructure gaps in the country.
- A comprehensive “Agriculture Export Policy” was launched on 6th December, 2018 with an aim to double farmers’ income by 2022 and provide an impetus to agricultural exports.
- A new scheme called “Transport and Marketing Assistance” (TMA) scheme has been launched for mitigating disadvantage of higher cost of transportation for export of specified agriculture products.
- A new scheme called Scheme for Rebate of State and Central Taxes and Levies (RoSCTL) covering export of garments and made-ups was notified on 7.3.2019 providing refund of duties/taxes at higher rates.
Janani Suraksha Yojana
Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY) is a safe motherhood intervention under the National Health Mission (NHM). Launched with the objective of reducing maternal and neonatal mortality, Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY) promotes institutional delivery among pregnant women especially with weak socio-economic status i.e. women from Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and BPL households.
The steps taken/being taken by the Government under JSY:
- The scheme focuses on the poor pregnant woman with special dispensation for States having low institutional delivery rates namely the States of Uttar Pradesh, Uttaranchal, Bihar, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Assam, Rajasthan, Orissa and Jammu and Kashmir. While these States have been named as Low Performing States (LPS), the remaining States have been named as High performing States (HPS).
- Exclusion criteria of age of mother as 19 years or above and up to two children only for home and institutional deliveries under the JSY have been removed and eligible mothers are entitled to JSY benefit regardless of any age and any number of children.
- BPL pregnant women, who prefer to deliver at home, are entitled to a cash assistance of Rs 500 per delivery regardless of age of women and the number of children.
- The Yojana enables the States/UTs to hire the services of a private specialist to conduct Caesarean Section or for the management of Obstetric complications, in the Public Health facilities, where Government specialists are not in place.
- States are encouraged to accredit private health facilities for increasing the choice of delivery care institutions.
Anaemia in women
According to National Family Health Survey (NFHS)–IV (2015-16), the prevalence of anemia among women aged 15 to 49 years is 53%.
Other important points:
- According to National Family Health Survey (NFHS)–IV (2015-16), the prevalence of anemia among adolescent girls aged 15-19 years is 54%.
- Under the National Health Mission (NHM), the steps taken to tackle anaemia are:
- Anaemia Mukt Bharat (AMB) has been launched in the year 2018 as part of Intensified National Iron plus Initiative (NIPI) Program for accelerating the annual rate of decline of anemia from one to three percentage points. The target groups for AMB are Children 6-59 months, 5-9 years, Adolescent Girls & Boys of 10-19 years, Women of Reproductive Age (15-49 years), pregnant Women and Lactating mothers.
- Weekly Iron and Folic Acid Supplementation (WIFS) Programme is being implemented to meet the challenge of high prevalence and incidence of anaemia amongst adolescent girls and boys. The intervention under WIFS include supervised weekly ingestion of Iron Folic Acid (IFA) tablet (each IFA tablet contains 100mg elemental iron and 500µg folic acid) for 52 weeks in a year.To control worm infestation biannual de-worming with Albendazole 400mg is done, six months apart.
- Health management information system & Mother Child tracking system is being implemented for reporting and tracking the cases of anaemic and severely anaemic pregnant women.
- Universal screening of pregnant women for anemia is a part of ante-natal care and all pregnant women are provided iron and folic acid tablets during their ante-natal visits through the existing network of sub-centers and primary health centers and other health facilities as well as through outreach activities at Village Health & Nutrition Days (VHNDs). These women are also counselled for dietary habits.
- Pradhan MantriSurakshitMatritvaAbhiyan (PMSMA) has been launched to focus on conducting special ANC check up on 9th of every month with the help of Medical officers/ OBGYN to detect and treat cases of anemia.
- Every pregnant woman is given iron and folic acid, after the first trimester, to be taken 1 tablet daily for 6 months during ante-natal and post-natal period each. Pregnant women, who are found to be clinically anaemic, are given two tablets daily.
- To address anaemia due to worm infestation, deworming of pregnant women is done after first trimester preferably in second trimester of pregnancy.
- Operationalization of Blood Bank in District Hospitals and Blood Storage Unit in Sub district facilities such as Sub-Divisional Hospital/ Community health Centers is being taken to tackle complications due to severe anemia.
- To tackle the problem of anemia due to malaria particularly in pregnant women and children, Long Lasting Insecticide Nets (LLINs) and Insecticide Treated Bed Nets (ITBNs) are being distributed in endemic areas.
- Health and nutrition education through IEC & BCC to promote dietary diversification, inclusion of iron folate rich food as well as food items that promotes iron absorption.
- MCP Card and Safe Motherhood Booklet is being distributed to the pregnant women for educating them on dietary diversification and promotion of consumption of IFA.
- Information, Education and Communication (IEC) material in the form of posters, hoardings, wall-writings and audio-visuals have been developed & disseminated to the States/UTs to promote prevention of anemia.
Employment Generated Through Textile Sector
The Textile industry is one of the largest source of employment generation in the country with over 45 million people employed directly and another 6 crore people in allied sectors, including a large number of women and rural population.
- Government has launched several important schemes for employment generation and providing livelihood in handloom, handicraft, powerloom for all the segments of the textile sector.
- SAMARTH—Skill development and capacity building scheme.
- Amended Technology Up-gradation Fund Scheme (ATUFS) for technology upgradation of the textile industry, purpose being to attract investment and boost employment.
- National Handloom Development Programme, Comprehensive Handloom Cluster Development Scheme, Handloom Weaver Comprehensive Welfare Scheme and Yarn Supply Schemesfor promotion of handloom sector and employment generation .
- Comprehensive Handicraft ClusterDevelopment Scheme.
- PowerTex India for powerloom weavers.
- Silk Samagra—an integrated Scheme for development of silk industry.
- Integrated Wool Development Programme.
- Scheme for Integrated Textile Parks.
- Scheme for Rebate of State and Central Taxes and Levies (RoSCTL) was recently approved by the Government to rebate all embedded state as well as central taxes/levies up to 31stMarch 2020 to promote ease of doing business and avoid procedural delays, rebate of taxes /levies embedded in manufacturing. This applies to Made-Ups and Apparels.
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