1.Discuss de-gradational effects of modern agriculture on environment. (GS Paper-1, Geography) (150 words)
Structure of the Answer
• Point out harmful effects of modern agriculture on environment
• Discuss impact of irrigation, agro-chemicals, monoculture etc.
Increase in food production to achieve self-sufficiency is an important objective. Intensive agriculture unfortunately, may lead to serious damage to environment. Some of these are listed below.
- Forests have been cleared transformed into farmlands for growing food crops.
- Excessive irrigation and poor drainage causes water logging and kill plants. Irrigation also causes salinization of soil.
Pollution by agrochemicals
Increased use of synthetic fertilizers causes to serious environmental problems. For example, unused fertilizers from agricultural fields are carried away by run off waters into lakes and rivers causing pollution. These agrochemicals may even seep through the soil and pollute ground water. Excessive nutrients enrichment of water bodies leads to ‘eutrophication’ may take place in water bodies and kill aquatic life.
Use of pesticides not only kills pests that destroy crop but may also kill many non pest organisms which may include even useful species of insects such as pollinators, birds and helpers in dispersal of plant seeds. Pesticides tend to accumulate and their concentration increases through the food chain and reach toxic levels in eggs, milk and other food items.
- Agro- industrial wastes are generated e.g. crop residues such as paddy, jawar, gram straws, cotton straws, sugarcane trash, and coconut shells etc. pile up causing environmental degradation.
- High yielding varieties (HYV) of food crops replaced various traditional crop varieties. Traditional agriculture was based on multi-cropping system, i.e. growing of food crops, fodder and firewood crops together. This practice had been replaced by monoculture i.e. growing of only one kind of crop in a field of specific set of nutrients making soil unfit for growing other crops but is being considered again.
2.Describe the various effects of National Emergency relating to the executive, legislative, financial matters, and with special reference to the fundamental Rights. (GS Paper-2, Polity) (250 words)
Structure of the Answer
· Introduction: Write about national emergency
· Discuss the effects of national emergency
The Constitution of India has provided for imposition of emergency caused by war, external aggression or internal rebellion. This is described as the National Emergency. This type of emergency can be declared by the President of India if he is satisfied that the situation is very grave and the security of India or any part thereof is threatened or is likely to be threatened either (i) by war or external aggression or (ii) by armed rebellion within the country.
Effects of National Emergency
The declaration of National Emergency has far-reaching effects both on the rights of individuals and the autonomy of the states in the following manner:
- The most significant effect is that the federal form of the Constitution changes into unitary. The authority of the Centre increases and the Parliament assumes the power to make laws for the entire country or any part thereof, even in respect of subjects mentioned in the State List.
- The President of India can issue directions to the states as to the manner in which the executive power of the states is to be exercised.
- During this period, the Lok Sabha can extend its tenure by a period of one year at a time. But the same cannot be extended beyond six months after the proclamation ceases to operate. The tenure of State Assemblies can also be extended in the same manner.
- During emergency, the President is empowered to modify the provisions regarding distribution of revenues between the Union and the States.
- The Fundamental Rights under Article 19 are automatically suspended and this suspension continues till the end of the emergency. But according to the 44thAmendment, Freedoms listed in Article 19 can be suspended only in case of proclamation on the ground of war or external aggression.
From the above discussion, it becomes quite clear that emergency not only suspends the autonomy of the States but also converts the federal structure of India into a unitary one. Still it is considered necessary as it equips the Union Government with vast powers to cope up with the abnormal situations. The exigencies of the situation prevailing in the period 1975-77 necessitated certain changes in the Constitution regarding emergency provisions. Therefore, the 44th amendment was passed on 30th April 1979 to strengthen the democratic features of the Indian Constitution and to protect citizens’ rights even during the national emergency.
3. Due to uncontrolled urbanization in India, environmental degradation has been occurring very rapidly and causing many problems. Discuss. (GS Paper-3, Environment) (250 words)
Structure of the Answer
• Introduction: Explain urbanisation process
• Explain the impact of urbanisation on environment
More and more people are moving to cities from villages in search of jobs. The rural-urban migration is also partly due to population growth and poverty in the villages. Urbanization means permanent settlement of people in cities and this has resulted in degradation of the environment in various ways.
Industrialization opened up many new jobs. Industries attracted rural youth to cities and their migration become easier with the improvement in communication and transport facilities. Growth of cities leads to increasing demand of environmental resources leading to following changes –
- Cultivated land was lost forever for building houses, industries, roads and other facilities.
- A water supply system had to be developed to provide water for drinking and other domestic uses. Growing urban population created increasing demand for potable water. As a result, availability of water becomes more and more scarce.
- Industries, that were set up to provide the necessary goods for urban folk, generated industrial waste, leading to the pollution of the environment. In cities, black smoke emitted from industries, buses, truck etc. cause air pollution. Large amount of garbage is generated and not disposed properly. As a result garbage remains scattered and unattended. Domestic and industrial effluents are drained into rivers and lakes. High noise levels are a common feature of urban environment.
- Energy consumption for electricity, transportation, cooking, and heating is much higher in urban areas than in rural villages. To fulfil energy demand environmental pollution is caused.
- Urban consumption of energy helps create heat islands that can change local weather patterns and weather downwind from the heat islands. The heat island phenomenon is created because cities radiate heat back into the atmosphere at a rate 15 percent to 30 percent less than rural area.
- The health implications of these environmental problems include respiratory infections and other infectious and parasitic diseases.
- An incessant influx of people into cities and shortage of housing result in development of slums and squatter areas. Inadequate facilities and lack of basic amenities in slums leads to unhygienic condition and social distortion and crime.
Although it is impossible to restrict urbanization it has to be ensured that urbanization proceeds in the right path causing minimum impact on environment.
4.Emotional intelligence is becoming increasingly vital to humans’ success in the Workplace. Explain the importance of emotional intelligence. (GS Paper-4, Ethics) (250 words)
Structure of the Answer
· Introduction: Briefly define Emotional Intelligence and highlight its growing importance in workplace
· Discuss the role of Emotional Intelligence in workplace
Reference: Lexicon’s Ethics
Emotional Intelligence (EI) refers to someone’s ability to perceive, understand and manage their own feelings and emotions. Emotional intelligence in the workplace is believed by many to be an important asset contributing to successful work outcomes. Although a soft skill, it is gaining more and more attention among executives. EI is increasingly being used as a tool for team building, leadership development, training, and hiring decisions.
Emotional Intelligence (EI) in the Workplace
- Higher emotional intelligence scores in interpersonal skills and stress management are also found to be connected with higher multicultural competency scores.
- These authors describe multicultural diversity competence as “the ability to demonstrate respect and understanding, to communicate effectively, and to work collaboratively with people from different cultural backgrounds”.
- High emotional intelligence is believed to result in successful and engaged employees across industries. It is believed to contribute to the ability to manage stress, provide superior customer service, increased ability to handle change, working more effectively on teams, employee retention and improved conflict management in the workplace.
- Those with a higher EI have a greater ability to self-regulate, and higher levels of motivation – which can in turn reduces their tendency to procrastinate, leads to improved self-confidence, and enables them to focus on achieving long-term goals.
- Those with a high level of emotional intelligence typically have a happier outlook on life and more positive attitude than those with a lower EI. They are also better at identifying and empathising with other people’s points of view – an essential trait for preventing and resolving conflicts at work.
- With a better understanding of our emotions, we can communicate our feelings in a more positive manner. We can also understand and relate to our colleagues, which can lead to better working relationships.
It is important to note that EI alone is not what leads to superior performance but the belief is that high EI contributed to effectiveness in EI related competencies which leads to higher performance.
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