1. What is aquaculture? Discuss the merits and demerits of aquaculture. (GS Paper-1, Geography-Resources) (250 words)
Structure of the Answer
· Introduction: Define aquaculture
· Discuss different types of aquaculture
· Point out merits and demerits of aquaculture
Aquaculture is the artificial cultivation of aquatic plants or animals. It is primarily carried out for cultivating certain commercially important edible species of fresh and marine water fishes, molluscs, crustaceans and aquatic plants. Generally natural water bodies support a rich biodiversity; very few species are harvested by man.
Fisheries include the extraction of food from the sea and the fresh water whereas aquaculture is rearing of the aquatic organisms in artificially made water bodies e.g. culture of fish like carps, tilapia.
There are two types of aquaculture:
- Fish farming is cultivation of fish in a controlled environment often a coastal or inland pond, lake, reservoir or rice field (paddy) and harvesting when they reach the desired size.
- Fish ranching is a practice of keeping which fishes in captivity for the first few years in floating cages in coastal lagoons and releasing them from captivity into water bodies.
Merit of aquaculture
(1) Ecological efficiency is high: 2 kg of grains are required to add 1 kg live weight.
(2) High yield in small volume of water.
(3) Improved qualities of fish obtained by selection and breeding and genetic engineering.
(4) Aquaculture reduces over harvesting of fisheries.
(5) High profit.
Demerit of aquaculture
(1) Large inputs of feed, water and land are required.
(2) Loss of native aquatic biodiversity: As it replaced by monoculture of a commercially important fish species.
(3) Produces large amounts of fish wastes that pollute water bodies.
(4) Destroys mangrove forests or coastal vegetation.
(5) Aquaculture fishes are very sensitive to pesticide runoff from croplands.
(6) In aquaculture ponds high population density is maintained that makes them highly vulnerable to diseases leading to total collapse of the crop.
(7) Aquaculture tanks or reservoirs are often get contaminated after a few years.
2.Directive principle of state policy (DPSP) has great value as it provides social and economic democracy. In the light of the above statement, discuss the importance and limitations of DPSP. (GS Paper-2, Polity) (250 words)
Structure of the Answer
· Brief introduction on DPSP
· Write merits and demerits of DPSP with respect to the social and economic values of constitution.
· Point out demerits of DPSP
The Directive Principles of State Policy (DPSP) are the guidelines or principles given to the government, to be kept in citation while framing laws and policies. These provisions, contained in Part IV (Article 36–51) of the Constitution of India, are not enforceable by any court, but the principles laid down there in are not considered in the governance of the country, making it the duty of the State to apply these principles in making laws to establish a just society in the country.
- According to B.R. Ambedkar, directive principles have great value because they lay down the goal of Indian polity as “economic democracy” differing from “political democracy”.
- It presents the future aims for state at the same time imposes moral obligation on state to achieve the desired state.
- It provides path to materialise the ideals of justice, liberty and equality mentioned in Preamble.
- They play a vital role in realising citizen’s awareness and by defining sets of condition that they can demand from the state. That’s why Granville Austin thought that DPSP foster social revolution by establishing conditions necessary for its achievement.
- Its implementation provide right conditions to enjoy fundamental right fully.
- They are too optimistic without any pathway suggested to implement them. That’s why Ivor Jennings called them “pious aspirations”.
- Non- justiciability and absence of a time limit, make hope of attainment of DPSP’s always remain in near future that never arrives.
- Selective use of DPSP reduces them to a tool of “political democracy” rather than beacon of “economic democracy” as Ambedkar envisaged. Like use of UCC (uniform civil code) or cow protection based on political cost-benefit analysis. It creates suspicion regarding DPSP and reduces that ability to create conditions for social change that Austin thought of.
- The economic aims without economic prudence in DPSP allow criticisms like calling it “a cheque on bank, payable only when resources of bank permit”.
DPSP may have been the last priority or the first call based on electoral conditions. Nevertheless they are representation of vision of independent India that our freedom fighters dreamt. They are friend, philosopher and guide that’s needed in present time if the nation is to become developed.
3.Soil erosion is occurring at an alarming rate, causing serious loss of topsoil. Discuss the consequences of soil erosion. How soil erosion can be prevented? (GS Paper-3, Environment) (250 words)
Structure of the Answer
· Introduction: Briefly define soil erosion
· Discuss the consequences of soil erosion
· Point out methods to prevent soil erosion
It is a process in which the top fertile layer of soil is lost. Due to soil erosion, the soil becomes less fertile. The top layer of soil is very light which is easily carried away by wind and water. The removal of topsoil by the natural forces is known as soil erosion.
Consequences of soil erosion:
- The fine particles of the topsoil which contain the bulk of nutrients and organic matter needed by the plants are lost from soil erosion. Erosion removes the most fertile part of soil. The less fertile subsoil is left.
- Erosion may result in removal of seeds or seedlings so that the soil becomes bare. Bare soil is more vulnerable to erosion both by wind and water.
- Removal of seeds and seedlings reduces the ability of soil to store water.
- Sheet, rill, gully and stream bank erosion also cause siltation of rivers, streams and fields. Deposition of silt results in damage of crops and pastures, and sedimentation of water bodies like streams, dams, reservoirs etc.
- Sedimentation of water bodies deteriorate water quality and damage aquatic habitats and organisms.
- Gully erosion also results in loss of large volumes of soil. Wider deep gullies sometimes reach 30 m and thus severely limit land use.
- Large gullies disrupt normal farm operation.
- Stream bank erosion not only causes loss of land, but also changes the course of a river or stream.
- Stream banks erosion also damage public roads.
- Mass movement of land or landslides also inhibits farm production and land use.
- It also causes mortality in animals and humans.
- Coastal erosion causes the adjourning land to become covered by sand.
Prevention of soil erosion
- It is essential to retain vegetation cover that soil is not exposed to rain. Vegetation cover is important because roots of plants hold soil particles together. Plants intercept rainfall and protect soil from direct impact of raindrops.
- Cattle grazing should be controlled.
- Crop rotation and keeping the land fallow should be adopted.
- Vegetation and soil management should be improved in order to increase soil organic matter.
- To prevent stream bank erosion runoff water should be stored in the catchment for as possible by maintaining vegetation cover and as by constructing dams for storing water.
- For prevention or reduction of coastal erosion, protective vegetation along the beaches should be re-established. The best method of controlling coastal dune erosion is not to disturb the dunes and the coastal system. Further, construction of buildings and other development should be located behind the dune system.
4. How does Bentham demonstrate that pursuit of pleasure is the Principle of Morality? (GS Paper-4, Ethics) (250 words)
Structure of the Answer
· Explain how pleasure is the principle of morality
Reference: Lexicon’s Ethics
Bentham saw the world as torn between two great forces, the quest for pleasure and the avoidance of pain. From this, he intuited that it would be better to maximize the former and minimize the latter, and that all other considerations are irrelevant. Bentham’s desire for social reforms to construct a society that would provide the greatest happiness to the greatest number was the starting point for the later Utilitarian philosophy.
PLEASURE: THE END OF HUMAN LIFE
Bentham wanted to purify legal and political institutions. Bentham began his attempt to do so with an analysis of language. According to Bentham, the meaning of language or any word depends on our experience. In other words, any word can be meaningful only if it refers to something that can be experienced. What is real is only whatever we can experience, either through external and internal sensations. The former is possible through sight, smell, sound, taste and touch. The latter is possible through the feelings of pain and pleasure. Anything we think or talk without any reference to experience is unreal.
Applying the method of analysis of language on the principles of Ethics, he said, the whole of ethics seems to be evolving around two concepts, ‘good’ and ‘obligation’. If we clarify them, we will see that moral language is really about ‘pleasure’ and ‘pain’. We all want, whatever is good. But ‘good’ can mean only ‘pleasure and absence of pain’ and this is all that ‘happiness’ can mean as well. The fictional name ‘obligation’ can refer only to some act we are directed to do, under the condition that if we fail to do it we will suffer some pain. So pleasure and pain are the realities underlying both ‘obligation’ and ‘good’, and the pursuit of pleasure must thus be the core of morality.
Basing on the above mentioned, Bentham formulates his moral principle which demands maximum pleasure and minimum pain for as many people as possible. In other words, it demands greatest happiness for the greatest number. He could see a motivational force to follow his ethical principle. Because everyone by nature seeks for happiness and the principle only emphasizes on maximizing it.
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