IASCLUB Synopsis : 17 July 2019

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1.The discourse of globalization has brought India in transition. Elucidate.       (GS Paper-1, Society) (250 words)

Structure of the Answer

 ·         Introduce briefly various facets of globalization

·         Examine the sectorial impacts of globalization in India

·         Conclude appropriately

Reference- NCERT

Model Answer:

The onset of liberalization and integrating with the global economy certainly transformed economy and society profoundly, however, the process is still unfolding and despite rapid changes, the pace of change has only increased over the last two and a half decade.

  • The Economic Reforms in India made India integrated with the world market, liberated from constraints of time, space and currency. It brought about changes in patterns of communication, technology, production and consumption, which in turn led to gradual transformation in caste, tribe, family, village and occupational structure or to put it generally, the way in which people live and work. This is because people, capital, goods, information and images are flowing around the globe at an intensified speed.
  • Globalisation gives a premium to people with high levels of education and entrepreneurial skills, who are better equipped to survive and succeed in a competitive world. As a consequence, the unskilled labour, uneducated workers and marginalised population are likely to benefit less in a more competitive economy with both public and private players in the market.
  • Urban middle class has benefitted from the fast growth of white-collar jobs in IT sector, but the blue-collar jobs in India’s manufacturing sector have grown only marginally.
  • Social transformation is happening, because the economic reform measures have affected the lifestyle of the Indian urban middle class. However, the change in attitude, lifestyle, and social customs has lagged behind the changes unleashed by economic transformation.
  • This, has often brought the social system in conflict with the economic forces and has created crisis a number of times, for example, the celebration of valentine’s day is fully backed by the market as it has turned out to be a profitable venture, but on the social side, we have also observed the various protests, even in urban centres, by the social forces, which want to maintain the status quo.

2.Though DPSP aren’t legally enforceable, they have become the yardstick for the measurement for Govt., successes and failures in social policies. Discuss.                                                       (GS Paper-2, Polity) (250 words)

Structure of the Answer

 ·         Briefly define DPSPs

·         Examine various DPSPs and their implementation

·         Conclude appropriately

Reference– NCERT

 Model Answer:

The phrase ‘Directive Principles of State Policy (DPSP)’ denotes the ideals that State should keep in mind while formulating the policies and enacting the laws. The DPSP are non-justifiable in nature or in other words, these are not legally enforceable by the courts as like fundamental rights and ultimately government can’t be compelled to implement them. But still they have become the yardstick for the measurement for Govt., successes and failures in social policies as they provide broader guidelines towards all the governance objectives and fulfilling them would create sufficient conditions for growth and advancement of society.

  • Article 39 (b): equitable distribution of material resources of the community for common good and Article 39 (c): Prevention of concentration of wealth and means of production. The SC in Minerva Mills Case (1980) ruled that Fundamental rights conferred under Article 14 and 19 shall remain subordinate to these two provisions of DPSP.
  • Article 43 talks about living wage and decent standard of life for all workers. However this provision can’t be enforced by court but decent wage.
  • Article 40: To organize village panchayats and endow them necessary powers. Inspiration from this article was resulted into 73rd constitutional amendment for set up of three tier panchayat in all over India.
  • Article 39A: It talks about free legal aid to poor. The government of India enacted Legal Services Authorities Act (1987) to provide free and competent legal aid to poor.
  • Article 47: To prohibit consumption of intoxicant drinks and drugs which are injurious to health. One can’t find any party manifesto in India which does not contain provisions for prohibition of intoxicant drinks or drugs. At present, Punjab is facing the huge problem of drugs and the issue became the major cause of rise of new party (AAP) in Punjab in 2014 Lok sabha elections.
  • Article 48: To organize agriculture and animal husbandry on modern and scientific lines. All decisions like Green and White revolution were inspired by this article of DPSP.
  • However DPSP are non-justifiable in nature but Supreme Court ruled that constitutional validity of any decision of government can be checked on the basis of DPSP. While, all parties in India provide election manifesto, they often ignore the supreme manifesto in form of DPSPs, which are some of the most relevant guidelines for the successive governments to follow in formulation of public policies and developmental plans.

There is no obstacle to implementation of DPSPs, except the will of government and political parties. For example, recently when hotel lobby in Kerala filed a petition in Supreme Court to revert the liquor ban imposed by the state government; SC in its observation stated that the government is well within its constitutional rights as per Article 47 of Indian Constitution to impose this ban.

 3.What are the main problems facing the Indian agriculture sector? What are the reforms overdue in the sector on which the government needs to act pro-actively?                                        (GS Paper-3, Economy) (250 words)

Structure of the Answer

 ·         Highlight major problems plaguing the agricultural sector

·         Conclude appropriately with solutions

 Reference– NCERT

Main Problems of Agriculture Sector:

  • Small and Fragmented Land Holdings: The average land holding size is 1.16 ha and situation is even worse for marginal farmers where average land holding size is below 0.5 ha. The main reasons behind this trend of land holding size are increasing family size and arable land is either constant or decreasing. Further fragmentation of land holdings with small holdings cause low productivity in agriculture.
  • Warehouse & Cold Storage: Almost 30% of horticulture produce like fruits or vegetables is wasted every year due to lack of warehouse and cold storage facility as marginal farmers are large in number.
  • Irrigation: After 68 years of independence, more than 60% of farmers are dependent on Monsoon for their crops as no irrigation facility available which aggravate the consequences of drought in rain dependent agriculture of India.
  • Agriculture Marketing: State APMC laws itself are major hurdles in Marketing of agriculture produce and in reality prevent farmers to avail best price for their agriculture produce.
  • Modernization of Land Records, Fertilizers, seeds, credit linkage or soil erosion are some another problems of Indian Agriculture Sector.

Reforms

  • Consolidation of Land holdings has been in place from last six decades and still has a place in major reforms to increase productivity in agriculture sector. However in almost all states, laws were enacted for the purpose of consolidation but not successful except in few states like Punjab or Haryana only.
  • The government shall focus on providing cheap and reliable irrigation facility to each farmer to reduce dependence on Monsoon and good step have been taken under PMKSY which is need to be put on fast track to reap its benefits.
  • National Agriculture Market shall not remain a dream anymore and shall be completed in fixed to time frame to allow farmers to get best price for their agriculture produce.
  • Modernization of Land Record which is now a decade old program of government need to get a pace to avoid conflict b/w small farmers and implementations of policies.

4.Do you agree that the long legacy of unethical practices in governance in India has enhanced the tolerance level for administrative immorality? Discuss with examples and also suggest the steps needed for improving administrative morality.                                                                               (GS Paper-4, Ethics) (250 words)

Structure of the Answer

 ·         Examine the interrelatedness between unethical principles and the governance system.

·         Suggest steps needed to curb unethical behaviour and reform the governance system.

·         Conclude appropriately

Reference: Lexicon’s Ethics

Model Answer:

  • The unethical principles which are present since ancient time bear a great influence on the ethical character of the governance system. Kautilya’s Arthashastra mentions a variety of corrupt practices in which the administrators of those times indulged themselves. The Mughal Empire and the Indian princely rule were also afflicted with the corrupt practices of the courtiers and administrative functionaries with ‘bakashish’ being one of the accepted means of selling and buying favours.
  • The East India Company too had its share of employees who were criticized even by the British parliamentarians for being corrupt. The forces of probity and immorality co-exist in all phases of human history.
  • Thus the long legacy of presence of corruption has been accepted by the people as a part of society thus when corruption cases comes up, the reaction against them is dismal.

Hence the steps needed are:

(a) Effective laws which require civil servants to give reasons for their official decisions (for example: a Freedom of Information law).

(b) Management approaches which encourage all public officials and civil servants to deal positively with corruption and unethical practice when they encounter it.

(c) ‘Whistleblower’ Protection Law to protect appropriate ‘public interest disclosures’ of wrong-doing by officials.

(d) Ethics audits to identify risks to the integrity of the most important processes (for example financial management, tendering, recruitment and promotion, dismissal and discipline).

(e) New Human Resource Management strategies (which link, for example, ethical performance with entry and advancement, and ethical ‘under-performance’ with disciplinary processes), merit based promotion and recruitment, anti-discrimination protections.

(f) Training and development in the content and rationale of Ethics Codes, the application of ethical management principles, the proper use of official power, and the requirements of professional responsibility.

(g) Effective external and internal complaint and redress procedures.

(h) Violation and breaches of Code of Ethics should invite sanction and punishment under the disciplinary rules.

(i) The ethical framework should provide for prevention and guidance, investigation, disciplinary action and prosecution.

(j) Ethical Guidance should include training in ethics awareness and development of essential skill for ethical analysis and moral judgment.

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