1.What do you understand by fascism? Discuss the major features of Fascist programme. (GS Paper-1, World History) (250 words)
Structure of the Answer
· Introduction: Define fascism and its meaning
· Discuss the features of fascism
Fascism does not represent an ideology. It was a theory based on certain programmes of action adopted in Italy by the Fascist Party under the leadership of Mussolini. Later, similar programmes were adopted by Hitler’s Nazi party in Germany. The term ‘Fascism’ has its origin in the Latin world ‘Fasio’ which means a ‘bundle of sticks’. In the ancient Rome, ‘bundle of sticks and axe’ were the symbols of state authority. ‘Bundle of sticks’ indicated discipline and unity, while ‘axe’ symbolised power. Thus, the principal objective of Fascism was restoration of lost glory and honour of the nation through military power and potential. Massive rearmament became the most important means of achieving the objective of national honour.
Features of fascism:
- Fascists were strongly nationalist in their outlook. They wanted to make Italy as powerful as she was in the days of ancient Roman Empire. But their nationalism was narrow. They advocated war and imperialistic expansion and a powerful state to realise these objectives. According to Fascism, state and nation are the ultimate moral beings. Thus, aggressive nationalism was the most important creed of Fascism.
- Fascism was against parliamentary democracy. It considered democracy as a weak form of government, incapable of handling the complicated economic and political problems. Fascists did not tolerate any opposition. They wanted total obedience to the party and the leader Mussolini was declared their II Duce, the leader. Nothing could be done against him or contrary to his wishes. In other words, Fascism, believed in one party totalitarian regime.
- Fascists were strongly opposed to socialism of all variety. They hated the communists and wanted to free the world of “Communist menace”. They advocated free enterprise. Their programme was supported by the capitalists. But Fascists did not support individualism or laissez faire, They did not want individual to be in a position to challenge the state. They did not want a powerless state. The Fascist state, therefore, was absolute, omnipotent and all comprehensive.
- Fascists were against internationalism or world order. Their nationalism was of extreme type. By implication, the League of Nations did not deserve the support of Fascist Italy. However, Mussolini maintained the facade of faith in the League until his Ethiopian adventure in 1935-36.
- Fascists advocated war. They had no faith in disarmament. Wars can be successfully fought only through armaments. War was, thus, glorified. Mussolini wrote: “Only war carries human energies to the highest level and puts the seal of nobility upon peoples who have the courage to undertake it.” Thus, both Mussolini and his German counterpart Hitler expanded territories of their countries by wars.
Thus, Fascism has no clear-cut ideology. As a theory, Fascism advocated ‘militant nationalism’. It believed in the use of force, promotion of imperialism and colonialism and massive rearmament. It rejected democracy and peaceful means of settlement of international disputes. Fascism was a ‘conservative reaction’ against the rising tide of socialism. Fascism was a creed of totalitarianism, which Mussolini defined as: “All in the state, nothing outside the state, nothing against the state.”
2.Discuss the nature of employment for women in a complex society. (GS Paper-2, Social Justice) (250 words)
Structure of the Answer
· Introduction on nature of work in a complex society
· Discuss the women employment in a complex society
Technological advances from the stage of hunting and gathering to landing on the moon have given birth to a technologically advanced complex society in modern times. Work in complex society means work that is paid. In complex societies appreciable headway has been made on employment of women. Women however remain separated from men in the work spheres. Following are the characteristic of women employment in a complex society:
- There is ‘horizontal’ segregation; and women are mostly in clerical jobs, catering, receptionists, nursing, and school teaching etc.
- There is also ‘vertical’ segregation– for example relatively few women reach top managerial positions, or skilled manual jobs. As such their wages too are lower than those of men.
- As matters stand today anti-women job discrimination is on the way out. It is no longer felt that a woman must stay at home; and only do domestic work.
- Further the concept of two incomes has gained popularity, since it raises the standard of living.
- The responsibility of raising the young however remains vested with women. This is also true of domestic work. However; in most nuclear families in urban areas, men do contribute to the domestic work in one way or the other out of choice or out of compulsion.
- But still, women as workers are taken less seriously than men by employers. They are not often delegated to workshops, which increase their skill.
- It is often felt that they have domestic interests which reduce work seriousness. This need not be true, however, that union meetings etc. are not conducive to women’s participation although communication and technology advancement is bringing more and more women into the work force.
Women in the workforce earning salary are part of a modern phenomenon, but women have been challenged by inequality in the workforce. In general work is still more male oriented.
3.State the important elements of an approach for efficient flood management in India.(GS Paper-3, Disaster Management) (250 words)
Structure of the Answer
· Discuss the approach of flood management like prevention, forecasting, management
Every year some part or other of the country gets flooded. Floods cause enormous damage to life, property-public and private, and disruptions to infrastructure, besides psychological and emotional instability amongst the people. A multipronged approach consisting of measures of prevention, protection, management, forecasting and early warning are needed to manage flood situation properly.
- i) Prevention and Protection:
- Floods can be prevented or significantly moderated by watershed management of the catchments area of rivers. For international rivers originating in Nepal and Bhutan, a joint mechanism for watershed management needs to be evolved.
- Another way is to preserve and augment flood cushions like natural swamps and lakes which can be developed into detention basins. Also, capacity of existing depression can be improved for absorbing flood waters.
- Efforts should also be made for utilising the existing reservoirs for flood moderation to the extent possible.
- Raising and strengthening of the existing embankments, if required after detailed studies of hydrological, morphological, topographical and developmental aspects provide some protection.
- Watershed management in the hilly catchments of the rivers originating in Nepal, Bhutan, and hilly areas of India should be selectively chosen and fully funded.
- Implementation should be done through a joint mechanism. The ideal solution for flood control is the creation of adequate storages in flood prone river systems. The storage projects need to be investigated, designed and executed expeditiously.
- The strategy of flood control through embankments has been pursued by the States over the years. A holistic view of an entire tributary or a large stretch of a tributary needs to be taken. Wherever feasible a one-time decisive investment for a flood protection project should be made.
- ii) Managing Flood:
Besides construction at appropriate location of spilling sections/‘sluices’ in flood embankment areas, integration of drainage sluices with other infrastructural developmental programmes in the sectors of road, railways, inland waterways, and canal/command area development works are necessary for flood management. Drainage improvement in critical areas in the country should be given priority.
iii) Forecasting and Early Warning:
Development of digital elevation model of flood–prone areas for taking up schemes for inundation forecast, preparation of flood risk maps, planning of flood management schemes, etc. should be taken up.
Many have proposed that loss of vegetation will lead to an increased risk of flooding. With natural forest cover the flood duration should decrease. Reducing the rate of deforestation should improve the incidents and severity of floods. Government of India has been assisting the flood prone states in flood management and anti-erosion works for critical reaches, by providing financial assistance to the state Governments through a number of centrally sponsored schemes.
4.What do you understand by values? In what way people resolve conflicts of values in their daily life? (GS Paper-4, Ethics) (150 words)
Structure of the Answer
· Define values and its importance in human life
· Give example to explain conflict in values
· Explain hierarchy of values and its role in resolving conflicts in values
Reference: Lexicon’s Ethics
Values may be defined as the criteria and moral judgement or certain subjective standards through which individuals or groups distinguish between good or bad, true or false and between ought to be or not to be etc. It shapes individual personality, social morality and guides individuals to be a part of or function within distinctive socio-cultural system.
Hierarchy of Values
- A person does not attach equal importance to all his or her values. There is a hierarchy of values. In a situation of competing claims, the lower values must yield to the higher one. Thus, when the examinations are close, a student would rather study than go to see a movie. Undoubtedly, in many situations the individual is faced with a conflict of values. But these conflicts are resolved or kept to a minimum through the hierarchical ordering of values.
- In the absence of such hierarchy of values, the integration of an individual’s personality is likely to be seriously threatened, and his actions may become chaotic.
- A socio-cultural system too is integrated through a degree of coherence among its diverse values and the general consensus about their hierarchical ordering.
- The values pertaining to various aspects of life, such as economic, political, moral or religious, form a network. The values of all social groups and institutions like political, economic, religious, etc., also affect each other in the process of interaction and they overlap with each other.
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