Q.1 Compare the ideology and methods of moderates and extremist Leadership of Congress. Highlight the major contributions of both moderates and extremist. (250 words)
Relevance : General studies Paper – I History
Structure of the Answer
• Introduction- Discuss Surat split
• Present a comparison between Moderates and Extremist Leadership of Congress on basis of their aim, methods, ideology, support etc.
• Mention the main leaders of both groups
• Discuss the contributions of moderates and extremists
Reference- NCERT/ Spectrum
Moderates believed in the policy of settlement of minor issues with the government by deliberations. But the extremists believed in agitation, strikes and boycotts to force their demands. The Congress split into two parts- Moderates and Extremists in the year 1907 at the Surat Session of Congress, which was also popularly known as ‘Surat Split’.
Moderates and extremism were active during the phase of 1885-1905 and 1905-1920 respectively.
1. Aimed at administrative and constitutional reforms.
2. Wanted more Indians in the administration and not to an end of British rule.
3. They were secular in their attitudes, though not always forthright enough to rise above their sectarian interests. They knew the exploitative nature of British rule but wanted its reforms and not expulsion.
1. They believe in the efficacy of peaceful and constitutional agitation.
2. They had great faith in the British sense of justice and fair play.
3. They were inspired by the ideas of western philosophers like Mill, Burke, Spencer and Bentham. Moderates imbibed western ideas of liberalism, democracy, equity and freedom.
1. They follow the principles of 3P: Petition, Prayer and Protest.
2. They believed in cooperation and reconciliation.
1. Economic Critique of British Imperialism
2. Constitutional Reforms and Propaganda in Legislature
3. Campaign for General Administrative Reforms
4. Defence of Civil Rights
• A.O. Hume. W.C. Banerjee. Surendra Nath Banerjee, Dadabhai Naoroji, Feroze Shah Mehta. Gopalakrishna Gokhale. Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya. Badruddin Tyabji. Justice Ranade and G.Subramanya Aiyar were their main leaders.
• They have got social support of Zamindars and Upper middle classes in towns.
They wanted to end the tyranny rule of British and get Swaraj.
1. They were radical in their approach. Demands of extremists were aggressive.
2. They believed in atmashakti or self-reliance as a weapon against domination.
3. Ideological inspiration was Indian History, Cultural heritage, national education and Hindu traditional symbols. Hence, they revived the Ganapati and Shivaji festivals to arouse the masses.
4. They wanted to inculcate pride in India’s glorious culture to generate the spirit of nationalism. They invoked goddesses Kali or Durga for strength to fight for the motherland.
5. Guided by four: principles Swarajya, Swadeshi, Boycott of foreign goods and National education to make the Indian aware.
1. They believe in militant methods.
2. They follow the principle of atmashakti or self-reliance as a weapon against domination.
3. Method of Non-Cooperation.
4. They advocated democracy, constitutionalism and progress.
1. Demand of Swaraj
2. Spread of Nationalism and mass movement
3. Spread of national education
4. Upliftment of downtrodden
5. Support to revolutionary movements
6. They also contributed to the rise of communalism
7. Encouraged co-operative organisation
8. Set up charitable association for rural sanitation, preventive police duties, regulation of fairs and pilgrim gatherings for providing relief fund during famines and other calamities.
• Lala Lajpat Rai, Lokmanya Bal Gangadhar Tilak. Bipin Chandra Pal, Aurobindo Ghosem Rajnarayan Bose, and Ashwini Kumar Dutt were their main leaders.
• They have got social support of educated middle and lower middle classes.
Q.2 Mention the limitations of the powers of the State Legislature with respect to Centre.(250 words)
Relevance : General studies Paper – II Polity
Structure of the Answer
• Brief introduction on State Legislature Discuss limitation of the Powers of the State Legislature wrt certain bills, emergency provision, Art 365 etc.
A state legislature that has two houses known as State Legislative Assembly and State Legislative Council (Vidhan Parishad), is a bicameral legislature. The Vidhan Sabha is the lower house and corresponds to the Lok Sabha, the Vidhan Parishad is the upper house and corresponds to the Rajya Sabha of Indian Parliament.
Limitation of the Powers of the State Legislature
The powers of law-making by the Legislature are limited in the following manner:
• State Legislature can make a law on the subjects listed in the State List and also the Concurrent List. But in case, the State law on a subject in the Concurrent list is in conflict with the Union law, the law made by the Parliament shall prevail.
• The Governor of the State may reserve his assent to a bill passed by the State Legislature and send it for the consideration of the President.
• It is compulsory in case the powers of Structure of Government the High Court are being curtailed.
• In some other cases, prior approval of the President for introducing the bill in the Legislature is essential such as, for imposition of restriction on the freedom of trade and commerce within the State or with other States.
• The Parliament has the complete control on the entire State List at the time when the national emergency has been declared (under Art. 352), although the State Legislature remains in existence and continues to perform its functions.
• In case of breakdown of constitutional machinery (under Art. 356) after fall of popular Government in the State, the President’s rule is imposed. The Parliament then acquires the power to make laws for that State, for the period of constitutional emergency. The Parliament can also make laws on a subject of the State list in order to carry on its international responsibility.
• If the Rajya Sabha adopts a resolution by two-thirds majority to this effect, on its own or at the request of two or more States, the Parliament can enact laws on a specified subject of the State list.
• Fundamental rights also impose limitations on the powers of the State Legislature. It cannot make laws which violate the rights of the people. Any law passed by the State Legislature can be declared void by the High Court or Supreme Court if it is found unconstitutional as violate of the fundamental rights.
Q.3 How does agriculture cause ground water depletion? Give suggestions to reduce the demand of groundwater in agriculture sector.(250 words)
Relevance : General studies Paper – III Economy
Structure of the Answer
• Explain how agriculture deplete groundwater resources
• Give suggestions like regulating the use of electricity for extraction of groundwater, introduction of modern precision irrigation technologies, policy intervention to favour less water consuming crops etc.
Reference- Ramesh Singh/ Current Affairs
Agriculture has been the lifeline for millions of Indian farmers since the Green Revolution in the 1960s and groundwater has played a vital role in irrigating water-hungry crops such as rice to feed India’s ever-growing population.
But over the past three decades, India has been grappling with intense and rapid depletion of groundwater stores driven by human-caused climate change and over-extraction. The consequences can be far-reaching; water shortages can hit food supplies causing prices to soar and fuelling social unrest.
Agricultural crop pricing and water intensive crops
In the last four decades, roughly 84% of the total addition to the net irrigated area has come through ground water. The primary cause of over-exploitation has been the rising demand for ground water from agriculture. Further, decisions such as cropping pattern and cropping intensity are taken independent of the ground water availability in most areas.
Minimum Support Prices (MSPs) are in more support for wheat and rice. This creates highly skewed incentive structures in favour of wheat and paddy, which are water intensive crops and depend heavily on ground water for their growth.
• Dry-season crop planning for a specific area depending on the aquifer type, ground water extraction, monsoonal rainfall and the water table level. This would include some degree of shift towards higher-value and less-water consumption crops.
• Adoption of modern precision irrigation technologies such as drip and sprinkler systems which will help reduce evaporation and other non-beneficial, non-recoverable fractions of water use in agriculture.
• Restrictions to control ground water abstraction or use through regulatory measures. These may include restricting the depth of irrigation water wells, establishing and enforcing minimum distances between irrigation.
Energy subsidies and ground water extraction
• The practice of providing power subsidies for agriculture has played a major role in the decline of water levels in India. In 2009, of the total amount of ground water extracted, 89% was for irrigation, and 11% was for domestic and industrial uses.
• Since power is a main component of the cost of ground water extraction, the availability of cheap/subsidised power in many states adds to the greater extraction of this resource.
• Moreover, electricity supply is not metered and a flat tariff is charged depending on the horsepower of the pump.
• The challenge is to find a balance between the needs of farmers and the need to ensure sustainable use of ground water. In this regard, the National Water Policy, 2012 recommends that the over extraction of ground water should be minimized by regulating the use of electricity for its extraction.
• Separate electric feeders for pumping ground water for agricultural use could address the issue.
• The Commission on Price Policy for Kharif Crops (2015-16) has recommended rationed water use in agriculture by fixing quantitative ceilings on per hectare use of both water and electricity.
• Also, if farmers are able to use water or electricity less than the ceilings fixed for them, they should be rewarded by cash incentives equivalent to unused units of water/power at the rates of their domestic resource costs. This will encourage farmers to use drip irrigation and other on-farm water management techniques to enhance production per drop of water.
Q.4 What is Ethical egoism? Discuss the challenges to the theory of Ethical egoism. (250 words)
Relevance : General studies Paper – IV Ethics
Structure of the Answer
• Define Ethical egoism
• Discuss the challenges to Ethical egoism
• Give examples to explain your arguments
Reference: Lexicon’s Ethics
Ethical egoism is the belief that human beings should always act in what they perceive to be their own, individual, best interest. Ethical egoism is also usually understood as a hedonistic ethical view, because “the Good” or goal of ethical life is understood as pleasure or happiness.
Challenges to Ethical Egoism
There are a number of challenges to ethical egoism.
1. The first is the inconsistent outcomes argument. If you are an ethical egoist, then you believe that you are morally obligated to always make decisions based on your own self-interest. However, you also believe that everyone else in the world is morally obligated to seek to further their own self-interests. Clearly, these views conflict, because if everyone else is seeking to further their own interests, then it makes it more difficult for you to achieve your goals.
2. The publicity argument against ethical egoism is similar. It basically says that moral theories should be publicized, or made known to anyone who will listen, because they’re about living a good life. However, the ethical egoist will do much better in the accomplishment of his goal (fulfilling his own interests), if he keeps this a secret and allows others to continue acting altruistically. In fact, he would do even better if he actively promoted other altruistically-oriented ethical theories. The more he convinces others to do selfless things on behalf of himself and others, the better off he will be in achieving his own self-interests. So ethical egoism is best applied by attempting to deceive others.
3. Since the purpose of ethical egoism is personal happiness or pleasure, and one way that most people gain pleasure is from healthy relationships with others, it would seem that friendship and family would be goals for an ethical egoist. However, deep friendships and loving family relationships require performing selfless acts on behalf of friends and family.
A person who is always concerned only with her own interests and never with others, cannot have truly deep friendships. This is called the paradox of ethical egoism.
4. A fourth challenge to ethical egoism is called the argument from counterintuitive consequences. In short, ethical egoism doesn’t just allow self-interested behaviour it demands it. Thus, if the ethical egoist believes she would ultimately benefit in some way from the death of someone else, she is obligated to kill that person. The same is true if there are numerous people. Intuitively, we know this is morally wrong, but this is what ethical egoism would require.
5. Finally, ethical egoism does not allow us to act to the benefit of posterity or future generations. The problem of future generations is that, since their prosperity does nothing to benefit you, ethical egoism dictates that you act in ways now that will help yourself, but may harm them.
For example, destroying the environment for your short-term gain over the course of a lifetime is a moral obligation if you are an ethical egoist. If everyone behaved this way, it would result in the quick destruction of the human race.
Students Note :
All questions are for your practice, daily Practice will give you confidence to write answer during UPSC mains Exam. Write Your Best Answer and post it in Comment Section down Below. After posting Question, we will post answer on second day. Answer will be for your reference purpose only.
110total visits,1visits today