- What are Endogenetic forces? Discuss the role of endogenetic forces in the formation of various landforms. (GS Paper-1, Geography) (150 words)
Structure of the Answer
· Write about origin of endogenetic forces.
· Classify endogenetic the forces
· Describe the landforms associated with each categorisation of forces.
The forces originating from within the earth are called as endogenetic forces. Their origin is related to the thermal conditions of the earth’s interior. They cause both horizontal and vertical movements at both local and continental scale. Such movements are manifested in contraction and expansion of rocks because of varying thermal conditions and temperature changes inside the earth. This expansion/contraction generates the forces of push/pull which leads to formation of various landforms.
These movements motored by the endogenetic forces introduce various types of crustal irregularities which give birth to a number of relief features on the earth’s surface (e.g. : mountains, plateaus, plains, lakes, faults, folds). Volcanic eruptions and seismic events are also the expressions of endogenetic forces.
On the basis of intensity, endogenetic forces can be divided into:
- Diastrophic forces
- Sudden forces
Role of endogenetic forces in the formation of various landforms
This includes both vertical and horizontal movements which are caused due to forces deep within the earth. These forces, also termed as constructive forces, affect larger areas of the globe and produce meso level reliefs. These diastrophic forces and movements are further divided into two groups:
- Epeirogenetic or continent building movements cause upwarping and downwarping.
- Orogenetic movements or mountain building movements cause tension and compression.
Sudden movements caused by endogenetic forces cause sudden and rapid events that lead to destruction at and below the earth’s surface. Events like volcano and earthquake are called extreme events and become disastrous hazards. But these forces are also creative in nature e.g. volcanic eruptions result in the formation of volcanic cones and mountains while fissure flows of lavas form extensive lava plateaus (e.g. Deccan plateau of India, Columbia plateau of USA).
2. What is the need of simultaneous elections in India? Discuss the merits and demerits of simultaneous elections. (GS Paper-2, Polity) (250 words)
Structure of the Answer
· Need of simultaneous elections
· Discuss benefits and criticism of simultaneous elections
Reference– Laxmikanth/ Current Affairs
The Election Commission had suggested as early as in 1983 that a system should be evolved so that elections to Lok Sabha and state legislative Assemblies could be held simultaneously.
Need of simultaneous elections:
If the elections to the local bodies are included there is no year without some elections taking place. This vicious circle of continuous elections needs to be broken.
- Stability: It affects stability and without it, there can neither be economic development nor a satisfactory law and order situation.
- Governance: Efficient governance is the first casualty when winning elections is the first priority of all politicians and understandably so. As a result, running an administration and attending to people’s grievances take a back-seat and the bureaucracy rules the roost.
- MCC: In addition, because of the enforcement of the model code of conduct (MCC) during elections, the pace of economic development is hampered.
- If all elections are held in one particular year, it will give a clear four years to the political parties to focus on good governance.
- Simultaneous elections will cut costs. Cost estimates:
- NITI Aayog: The NITI Aayog paper said the Lok Sabha elections of 2009 had cost the exchequer about Rs 1,115 crore, and the 2014 elections, about Rs 3,870 crore.
- Election Commission of India: The Election Commission of India, on its part, has estimated the cost of holding simultaneous elections to Lok Sabha and state Assemblies at Rs 4,500 crore.
- There are other kinds of costs that elections impose.
- Frequent elections and campaigns hurt the federal structure as leaders were “forced to talk politically”.
- Many have argued that election campaigns end up sharpening faultlines of caste, religion and community across the country.
- Also, the Model Code of Conduct puts on hold all development programmes.
- Elections are huge disruptors of normal life — simultaneous elections would reduce disturbance from political rallies, etc., the parliamentary panel argued.
- It would free up large numbers of security personnel and other staff.
- Democratic and federal character of the Constitution: Amending the Constitution to effect simultaneous elections would fundamentally alter its democratic and federal character.
- Logistics: The deployment of security forces and officials in 700,000 polling stations located in widely varying geographic and climatic conditions all at the same time will be extremely difficult.
- Buying Electronic Voting Machines (EVMs) and Voter Verifiable Paper Audit Trail (VVPAT) machines would cost Rs 9,284.15 crore, the EC told the House panel.
- Different sets of issues: State and national elections are often fought on different sets of issues — and in simultaneous elections, voters may end up privileging one set over the other in ways they might not have done otherwise. This could lead to national issues being ignored, or, conversely, local issues being swept away by a national ‘wave’.
3. Why problem of NPAs is more pronounced in the public sector banks as compared to the private sector. Discuss the implications of having high NPAs in an economy. (GS Paper-3, Economy) (250 words)
Structure of the Answer
· Introduction: Briefly define NPA
· Analyse the major reasons behind PSBs greater distress compared to Private players.
· Discuss the effect of high NPAs on the overall economy
Assets which generate income are called performing assets and but those do not generate income are called non-performing assets. A debt obligation where the borrower has not paid any previously agreed upon interest and principal repayments to the designated lender for an extended period of time. The nonperforming asset is therefore not yielding any income to the lender in the form of principal and interest payments.
As per RBI, an asset becomes non-performing when it ceases to generate income for the bank. Both Private as well as PSBs face the problem of NPA’s, however it is much more pronounced in case of the PSBs. The reasons behind this can be:
- Burden of stalled growth-oriented infrastructure projects is largely borne by PSBs.
- Government interferences influence the appointment of top executives and affect sanctioning and disbursal of loans. There are also norms for priority-sector-lending to agriculture, MSMEs etc.
- Procedure followed in extending and monitoring credit – The culture that is created out of frequent interference in disbursing of credit leads to poor objective analysis in decision making. Excessive past lending during economic growth is associated wrong credit decisions, which are presently NPAs.
- PSBs reflect poor level of debt recovery, patronage to wilful defaulters, whereas Private Banks concentrate more on lucrative-less risky lending.
- Interest rate hikes in the past also hit PSBs.
Effects of high NPAs on the economy:
The problem of NPAs in the Indian banking system is one of the foremost and the most formidable problems that had impact the entire banking system. Higher NPA ratio trembles the confidence of investors, depositors, lenders etc. It also causes poor recycling of funds, which in turn will have deleterious effect on the deployment of credit. The non-recovery of loans effects not only further availability of credit but also financial soundness of the banks.
- Profitability: NPAs put detrimental impact on the profitability as banks stop to earn income on one hand and attract higher provisioning compared to standard assets on the other hand.
- Puts pressure on Government of infusing capital and on its fiscal expenditure.
- Asset (Credit) contraction: The increased NPAs put pressure on recycling of funds and reduces the ability of banks for lending more and thus results in lesser interest income. It contracts the money stock which may lead to economic slowdown.
- Capital Adequacy: As per Basel norms, banks are required to maintain adequate capital on risk-weighted assets on an on-going basis. Every increase in NPA level adds to risk weighted assets which warrant the banks to shore up their capital base further.
- Shareholders’ confidence: Normally, shareholders are interested to enhance value of their investments through higher dividends and market capitalization which is possible only when the bank posts significant profits through improved business. The increased NPA level is likely to have adverse impact on the bank business as well as profitability thereby the shareholders do not receive a market return on their capital and sometimes it may erode their value of investments.
- Public confidence: Credibility of banking system is also affected greatly due to higher level NPAs because it shakes the confidence of general public in the soundness of the banking system. The increased NPAs may pose liquidity issues which is likely to lead run on bank by depositors.
Thus, the increased incidence of NPAs not only affects the performance of the banks but also affect the economy as a whole.
4.Why corruption in developing regions like South Asia is more damaging than corruption in developed nations? Discuss. (GS Paper-4, Ethics) (250 words)
Structure of the Answer
· Explain why corruption in developing regions like in India is more damaging than developed
Reference: ARC reports
Corruption happens everywhere. It has been at the center of election campaigns in Italy and the United Kingdom, led to the fall of governments in Japan and Indonesia, and resulted in legislative action in Russia and the United States. Corruption exists in rich, economically successful countries, but South Asian corruption has four key characteristics that make it far more damaging than corruption in any other parts of the world.
- Corruption in South Asia occurs up-stream, not down-stream. Corruption at the top distorts fundamental decisions about development priorities, policies, and projects. In industrial countries, these core decisions are taken through transparent competition and on merit, even though petty corruption may occur down-stream.
- Corruption money in South Asia has wings, not wheels. Most of the corrupt gains made in the region are immediately smuggled out to safe havens abroad. Whereas there is some capital flight in other countries as well, a greater proportion goes into investment. In other words, it is more likely that corruption money in the North Asia is used to finance business than to fill foreign accounts.
- Corruption in South Asia often leads to promotion, not prison. The big fish – unless they belong to the opposition – rarely fry. In contrast, industrialised countries often have a process of accountability where even top leaders are investigated and prosecuted. For instance, former Italian Prime Minister Bettino Craxi was forced to live in exile in Tunisia to escape extradition on corruption charges in Rome. The most frustrating aspect of corruption in South Asia is that the corrupt are often too powerful to go through such an honest process of accountability.
- Corruption in South Asia occurs with more than 500 million people living in poverty, not with per capita incomes above twenty thousand dollars. While corruption in rich rapidly growing countries may be tolerable, though reprehensible; but in poverty stricken South Asia, it is crime when the majority of the population live under deprivation.
Combating corruption in the region is not just about punishing corrupt politicians and bureaucrats but about saving human lives. There are two dimensions of corruption. One is the exploitative corruption where the public servant exploits the helpless poor citizen. The other is collusive corruption where the citizen corrupts the public servant by a bribe because he gets financially better benefits. Collusive corruption depends on black money.
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