1.Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar’s contribution towards education and changing the status of women in India was remarkable. Discuss. (GS Paper-1, History) (150 words)
Structure of the Answer
· Then list down contribution of Vidyasagar in India’s socal reform
· Highlight his contribution in the field of education
Ishwar Chandra VidhyaSagar became a legendary figure for his simple living, fearlessness, spirit of self-sacrifice, his devotion to education, to the cause of the downtrodden.
Major Contribution of Ishwar Chand
- He introduced the study of modern Western thought in the Sanskrit college.
- He played an important role in the upliftment of widow’s and girl’s education.
- He was one of the contributors to the law passing which made the widow marriage legal.
- He started the first school for girl’s education in Calcutta in 1849.
- He was a powerful supporter of widow re-marriage.
- He was closely associated with many journal and newspapers and wrote powerful, articles advocating social reforms.
- He was great contributor of Bengali language, and considered as originator of Modern Bengali Language.
He introduced the study of modern western thought in the Sanskrit College and admitted students belonging to the so-called lower castes to study Sanskrit.
In 1855 he was made special inspector of schools, he opened a number of new schools, including girls’ schools, in the districts under his charge. The authorities did not like this and he resigned from his post. He was closely associated with Drinkwater Bethune who had started the first school for girls’ education in Calcutta in 1849.
2.Eliminating industrially produced trans-fat is one of the simplest and most effective ways to save lives and create a healthier food supply.Discuss. What are the guidelines given by WHO for elimination of industrially produced trans fat. (GS Paper-2, Polity) (250 words)
Structure of the Answer
· Introduction: Write about trans-fat
· Discuss the harmful effect of trans-fat
· Highlight the recommendation of WHO
· Conclude with the REPLACE strategy of WHO for elimination of industrially produced trans-fat
Trans fatty acids (TFAs) or Trans fats are the most harmful type of fats which can have much more adverse effects on our body than any other dietary constituent. These fats are largely produced artificially but a small amount also occurs naturally. Thus in our diet, these may be present as Artificial TFAs and/ or Natural TFAs.
Artificial TFAs are formed when hydrogen is made to react with the oil to produce fats resembling pure ghee/butter.
In our diet the major sources of artificial TFAs are the partially hydrogenated vegetable oils (PHVO)/vanaspati/ margarine while the natural TFAs are present in meats and dairy products, though in small amounts.
Impacts on health:
- TFAs pose a higher risk of heart disease than saturated fats.
- It is also associated with a higher risk of developing obesity, type 2 diabetes, heart disease, metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, infertility, certain types of cancers and can also lead to compromised fetal development causing harm to the yet to be born baby.
- The WHO recommendation is that people consume less than 1% of their energy from trans fat.
- WHO also released REPLACE, a step-by-step guide in 2018, for the elimination of industrially-produced trans-fatty acids from the global food supply.
- As part of the U.N.’s Sustainable Development Goals, the global community has committed to reducing premature death from non-communicable diseases by one-third by 2030.
REPLACE provides six strategic actions to ensure the prompt, complete, and sustained elimination of industrially-produced trans fats from the food supply:
- REview dietary sources of industrially-produced trans fats and the landscape for required policy change.
- Promote the replacement of industrially-produced trans fats with healthier fats and oils.
- Legislate or enact regulatory actions to eliminate industrially-produced trans fats.
- Assess and monitor trans fats content in the food supply and changes in trans fat consumption in the population.
- Create awareness of the negative health impact of trans fats among policymakers, producers, suppliers, and the public.
- Enforce compliance of policies and regulations.
3.Discuss the role of India and China in building a secure Afghanistan. (GS Paper-3, Security) (250 words)
Structure of the Answer
· Introduction-Why is India and China’s role in Afghanistan important?
· Discuss China’s role in Afghanistan.
· Discuss India’s role in Afghanistan.
· Conclude with Suggestions.
Reference – Current affairs
There is an air of uncertainty about the U.S.’s intentions in Afghanistan. The likelihood of an American pullout raises the spectre of instability in Afghanistan, South and Central Asia. Like India, China never had any intention of contributing troops to NATO’s anti-Taliban campaign. But as Asia’s strongest power and challenger to the U.S., China will try to fill the gap created by U.S. withdrawal.
China’s role in Afghanistan
- Sharing part of a border with Afghanistan, China has a great interest in its stability. China would be adversely affected by war and chaos, which could spill over into north-western China, Pakistan, and Central Asia. As all these areas are vital in its Belt and Road Initiative (BRI), peace in Afghanistan is critical.
- Over the last decade, China has gained considerable economic and diplomatic influence in Afghanistan. Unsurprisingly, Afghanistan’s President, Ashraf Ghani, made China the destination of his first official trip abroad in October 2014. China then announced its intention to build regional consensus on Afghanistan’s security.
- It has joined the U.S. and Russia in several peace talks with the Taliban and is part of the four-nation Quadrilateral Coordination Group (with Afghanistan, Pakistan and the U.S.).
- It is giving military aid to Afghanistan, with the express intent of fighting terrorism and increasing security cooperation.
- Despite the prevailing instability in Afghanistan, China has used diplomacy and finance to appear influential and generous. It has invested in projects such as mining, roads and railways, and health. A rail link, completed in 2016, and running from far eastern China via Uzbekistan to the river port of Hairatan in northern Afghanistan, could reduce the time taken to make shipments, from six months by road, to just two weeks.
- In 2012, China brought Afghanistan into the regional diplomatic processes by giving it observer status in the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO).
- At the 18th SCO summit at Qingdao, China, in 2018, Chinese President Xi Jinping declared China’s readiness to train 2,000 law enforcement officers ‘for all parties’ in the next three years.
China needs to deal with Pakistan, its all-weather friend, which trains and exports extremists across the Durand Line.
India’s role in Afghanistan
- India supports China’s role in international negotiations on Afghanistan, the activation of the SCO-Afghanistan Contact Group and other mechanisms of dialogue and cooperation for restoration of peace and development in Afghanistan.
- India has certainly contributed much ‘soft power’ ranging from telecommunications to education, Bollywood movies and pop music.
- The building for the National Assembly was built with Indian assistance to support Afghanistan’s democracy.
- Indian reconstruction largesse, amounting to some $3 billion, has earned it goodwill and popularity.
India-China cooperation in Afghanistan
- The Afghan government would like to see India-China economic cooperation in Afghanistan that could boost progress and enhance human security.
- Last October, in a first, India and China started a joint training project for Afghan diplomats.
- They could expand cooperation by facilitating Afghanistan’s full membership of the SCO.
- India, which has been against holding talks with the Taliban for a long time, finally sent two retired diplomats, at the ‘non-official level’, to join them at the Moscow peace parleys in November last year. But India’s lengthy absence from regional diplomacy has resulted in its limited contribution to the negotiations that are necessary to stabilise Afghanistan.
China’s leadership role of the SCO and contacts with all parties (the U.S., the Taliban, the Afghan government, Pakistan, Russia and the five Central Asian states) could give it a vantage in crafting a regional solution on Afghanistan. That should not prevent India and China from working together, bilaterally and in the SCO, to build a secure Afghanistan.
4.What are the different components of an emotion? Describe various expressions of emotions. (GS Paper-4, Ethics) (250 words)
Structure of the Answer
· Introduction- Define emotion
· Mention different aspects of emotion
· Explain major emotions with examples
Reference: Lexicon’s Ethics
The term emotion is derived from Latin term “emovere” which means to stir, to agitate, to move. Hence, an emotion is referred to as a stirred up state of the organism.Emotion is often defined as a complex state of feeling that results in physical and psychological changesthat influence thought and behavior.
They may be pleasant or unpleasant. Pleasant emotions are the sources of joy whereas unpleasant emotions are related to disturbing mental states like aggression, fear, anxiety etc.
Each emotion has three basic aspects.
- Cognitive aspect: It involves thoughts, beliefs and expectations that are involved when we experience emotions. For example – your friend may find a novel rich in descriptions of people and places whereas you may find it unrealistic.
- Physiological aspect: It involves physiological activation. When you experience emotions such as fear or anger, you experience an increase in pulse rate, blood pressure and respiration. You may also perspire.
- Behavioural aspect: It includes various forms of emotional expressions. If you observe your father or mother during anger and happiness you will notice that facial expressions, bodily postures and tone of voice vary with anger, joy and other emotions.
We develop a number of emotions while dealing with different persons and objects in the environment. They can be negative emotions like fear and anxiety or positive emotions like pleasure and love.
These are listed below.
- Fear: Fear is caused by situations which are perceived as physically threatening. The situations that produce fear change with age. Maturation and personal experiences contribute to the development of fear.
- Anxiety: Anxiety is a state of painful discomfort of mind. During anxiety a vague fear or apprehension occurs. The difference between fear and anxiety often refers to the involvement of present situation. People become anxious when they anticipate any harmful or threatening event. High level of anxiety is destructive for our performance and health.
- Pleasure: Pleasure or happiness is a positive emotion which gives satisfaction to the person who experiences it. Pleasure is the reaction to the satisfaction of a need or attainment of a goal. The babies derive pleasure from physical well being, tickling etc. whereas adults experience pleasure by the experiences like being successful in different situations.
- Affection: It is a pleasant emotional reaction directed towards a person, an animal or an object. Affection is expressed by patting, hugging, verbal expression, protecting and helping the loved one.
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