1.Analyse the factors affecting distribution of cement industry in India. (GS Paper-1, Geography) (250 words)
Structure of the Answer
· Introduction on Industrial location
· Discuss the factors affecting distribution of cement industry
· Conclude appropriately
India is the second largest cement producer in the world and accounts for 6.7 per cent of world’s cement output. It is one of the India’s eight core industries.
Following factors determines the location of an industry (Webber’s theory):
- Location of raw materials
- Transportation cost
- Location of Market
Apart from the above 3 major factors, labour cost, agglomeration of a particular industry, government policy etc. also play vital role in determining location.
Factors affecting locational distribution of cement Industry:
- The cement industry is a highly energy intensive Energy and raw materials (coal and lime stone) together form the most critical components in the production of cement.
- It requires low value but heavy materials- an average 1.6 tonnes of limestone is required to produce one tonne of cement. So, being weight losing industry, location is primarily determined by limestone deposits.
- As the northern plains are devoid of the limestone deposits, this region is mostly devoid of this industry.
- Along the Vindhyan ranges from Eastern Rajasthan to Jharkhand, there is the abundant supply of quality limestone, as also in south of Vindhyas. As a result, 86% of factories and 75% of production capacity is found in 8 States i.e. Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Andhra Pradesh (including Telangana), Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Bihar.
- One tonne of cement requires approximately 120-130 units of electricity, hence not only availability but tariff and quality of power is also important.
- Housing sector is biggest demand driver of cement with 67% consumption. Hence many plants also found in proximity to urban centers.
- Due to export market mainly to Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, South-east asian nations etc., cement plants are located near ports.
- Raw material used in cement industry is bulk material and hence, transportation costs are high. To optimize costs, plants are mostly located near the source and sometimes, near the market. Southern India is more urbanized and hence, more cement plants are located there.
Cement industry is not evenly distributed in the country and it is moving towards greater dispersion in search of optimum location. But as the country is expected to see huge investments in infrastructure and construction and government initiatives like ‘Housing for All’, cement sector is expected to see good growth
2.Discuss the need of QUAD? What is the significance of QUAD to India? (GS Paper-2, International Relations) (250 words)
Structure of the Answer
· Discuss the importance of QUAD
· Finally highlight the significance of QUAD to India
- Quadrilateral Security Dialogue (QSD) is the strategic dialogue between four countries viz. India, United States, Japan and Australia.
- It was originally initiated in 2007 but later disbanded with withdrawal of Australia.
- It has been recently revived and is being viewed as response to increased Chinese economic and military power.
Need for setting up of the Quad:
- The quadrilateral comes in the backdrop of growing Chinese assertiveness in the South China Sea.
- It has also raised concerns regarding freedom of trade and navigation through the waters of the south and East China seas.
- To counter hegemony of China in the region.
- Single Navy of any country can’t provide security in vast oceans.
- It will increase connectivity in the Indonesian Pacific region and provide economic opportunity.
- It will provide safety to international maritime trade routes like Mallaca strait.
Significance for India:
- India has taken a significant turn in its policy for the subcontinent by joining quad grouping.
- It provides New Delhi a powerful platform to advance its interests in East Asia.
- It will deepen India’s ties with US, Australia and Japan with benefits in diplomatic leverage and sharing of burden in defense.
- It will also provide India significant chance in shaping US policies in Afghanistan-Pakistan to the benefit of India.
- It will provide a powerful platform to advance Indian interest in region and strengthen Act East policy.
- Foster economic growth with better market adaptation, so it will lead to more employment opportunity in India.
- It helps India and other three Nations to counter China’s OBOR.As India is refused to join OBOR it helps India to connect with other markets like Central Asian and South East Asian markets.
3.As human populations expand, it results in greater contact with domestic and wild animals, providing more opportunities for diseases to pass from one to the other. Explain. Discuss the measures to reduce spread of diseases from human animal contact.
(GS Paper-3, Environment) (250 words)
|Structure of the Answer
· Explain the spread of diseases from human animal contact
· Then discuss the measures to reduce spread of diseases from human animal contact
Reference– Current Affairs
Human health and animal health are interdependent and bound to the health of the ecosystems in which they exist.
Climate change, deforestation and intensive farming further disrupt environment characteristics, while increased trade and travel result in closer and more frequent interaction, thus increasing the possibility of transmission of diseases.
- According to the OIE, 60% of existing human infectious diseases are zoonotic i.e. they are transmitted from animals to humans; 75% of emerging infectious human diseases have an animal origin.
- Of the five new human diseases appearing every year, three originate in animals.
- 80% biological agents with potential bio-terrorist use are zoonotic pathogens.
- It is estimated that zoonotic diseases account for nearly two billion cases per year resulting in more than two million deaths — more than from HIV/AIDS and diarrhoea.
- One-fifth of premature deaths in poor countries are attributed to diseases transmitted from animals to humans.
- There is need for strengthening veterinary institutions and services.
- The most effective and economical approach is to control zoonotic pathogens at their animal source.
- It calls not only for close collaboration at local, regional and global levels among veterinary, health and environmental governance, but also for greater investment in animal health infrastructure.
- This calls for strict health surveillance to incorporate domestic animals, livestock and poultry too.
- Humans require a regular diet of animal protein. Thus, loss of food animals on account of poor health or disease too becomes a public health issue even though there may be no disease transmission, and we lose 20% of our animals this way.
- Early detection at animal source can prevent disease transmission to humans and introduction of pathogens into the food chain.
4.What is service quality? How can it be improved? (GS Paper-4, Ethics) (250 words)
Structure of the Answer
· Briefly define service quality
· List down the factors that can improve service quality
· Include both demand and supply side of factors
Reference: Lexicon’s Ethics
Service quality can be defined as the difference between customer expectations and customer perceptions. If expectations are greater than the customer’s perceptions about service experience and outcome, the perceived quality is not satisfactory. This emphasizes the fact that in assessing service quality, it is the perspective of the customer that should be given precedence.
Improving the quality of public services requires interventions on the supply as well as the demand side.
The supply-side factors are:
- Establishing objectivity in service standards through mechanisms such as citizen’s charters, Sevottam etc.
- Inculcating a service orientation by selecting and nurturing a good quality of human capital.
- Providing scope for inspection and corrections through tools such as a Grievance Redressal Mechanism, Whistleblower Protection etc.
- Information dissemination.
Demand-side factors promote citizen engagement and a citizen-centric culture within administration. They include:
- Information dissemination.
- Capacity building and Community mobilization.
- Grievance Redressal Mechanism.
- Institutionalisation of citizen engagement mechanisms.
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