1.Discuss a two way linkage between Migration and Climate Change with example. (GS Paper-1, Geography) (250 words)
Structure of the Answer
· Explain how climate change results into migration with example
· Also mention effects of migration on climate change
· Conclude with solutions
The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) defines ‘climate change’ as a change of climate which is attributed directly or indirectly to human activity that alters the composition of the global atmosphere and which is in addition to natural climate variability observed over comparable time periods.
Climate change is the increasing the instances of extreme climatic events likes floods, cyclones, draughts, etc. which effect human beings in various ways like loss of property, livelihood and many a times life. Migration has been one of the most visible negative impacts of climate change which further effects climate change.
Two way linkage between climate change and migration:
Climate change, environment variability and migration are interlinked. Climate change results into environmental degradation, disasters which results into migration and that in turn can further feeds climate change.
How climate change results into migration:
- Climate-related migration not only involves people fleeing from the imminent threat or aftermath of a climate disaster – the most commonly referenced type – but also entails planned relocation by households and communities as an adaptation strategy to search for alternative livelihoods and sources of income.
- Climate change results into changes in rainfall patterns and hydrological cycles, soil degradation, desertification etc. which effects crop yields and agriculture overall. This makes livelihood and survival difficult and creates food security problem.
- Climate change also exacerbates health problems especially in equatorial and tropical areas. With increases incidences of viral and other diseases and poor health infrastructure in some backward areas people start migration.
- Extreme events like floods, cyclones, coastal erosion and coastal floods creates threats to life and property, so people generally try to avoid such areas.
As a response to these effects people use migration as an adaptive strategy. Extreme climatic events in recent periods like two consecutive draughts in Maharashtra, force people to migrate to new areas or urban towns.
The migration can be to urban areas, new virgin areas in forests, within same country and foreign country also.
How migration effects climate change:
- As people migrate to new areas like urban areas where they change their life style, habits, etc. More use of fossil fuels, power etc. is attached to urban areas. This causes climate change. In a report by IPCC CO2 emission from use of fossil fuels, industries and transportation is major contributor to greenhouse gases.
- Many times communities migrate to new areas and clear forests or grasslands which otherwise were storehouse of carbon. This further lead to climate change.
Therefore it is clear that climate change and migration has two way linkages with each feeding other. As a result of each negatively affecting the sustainability of human beings there is a need to manage both efficiently.
Adaptation and mitigation strategies like drought proofing of agriculture, building infrastructure which can withstand floods and cyclones etc. must be developed to tackle extreme climatic events so that migration is avoided. There should be a migration policy so that negative effects such as cleansing of forests can be avoided by properly managing migration.
2.What is the difference between Public Bill and Private Bill? Explain with examples.(GS Paper-2, Polity) (250 words)
|Structure of the Answer
· Write down the brief definition of Public Bill and Private Bill
· Finally discuss the difference between Public Bill and Private Bill
The legislative procedure is identical in both the Houses of Parliament. Every bill has to pass through the same procedure in each House. A bill is a proposal for legislation and it becomes an act or law when duly passed by the both houses of the parliament and signed by the president of India. Public Bill is presented in parliament by a minister only while private bill can be presented by any member of parliament.
Bills introduced in the Parliament are of two kinds: public bills and private bills (also known as government bills and private members’ bills respectively). Though both are governed by the same general procedure and pass through the same stages in the House.
Private Bill: A private bill is a proposal for a law that would apply to a particular individual or group of individuals, or corporate entity. Private law can provide relief from another law, grant a special benefit or powers not available under the present law, or relieve someone from legal responsibility for some allegedly wrongful act.
Here are some differences between these two bills given below:
|Public Bill||Private Bill|
|1. It is introduced in the parliament by a minister.||1. It can be introduced by any member of the parliament other than a minister.|
|2. It reflects the policies of the government (ruling party).||2. It reflects the mood of the political party on the public matter.|
|3. It has greater chance to be passed by the parliament.||3. It is less likely to be passed by the parliament.|
|4. Its rejection in the lower house of the parliament may lead to the resignation of the while cabinet.||4. Its rejection by the house has no implication on the parliamentary confidence of the ruling party.|
|5. Its introduction in the house requires 7 days notice.||5. Its introduction in the house requires one month’s.|
|6. It is drafted by the concerned department in consultation with the law department.||6. Its drafting is the responsibility of the members concerned.|
3.Briefly discuss the importance of Project loon in expanding the reach of Digital India. (GS Paper-3, Science & Technology) (150 words)
|Structure of the Answer
· Introduction: Brief description of project loon
· Then discuss the benefits of this project in India
· Conclude appropriately
Reference– Current affairs
Project loon is working on providing Internet access to rural and remote areas. The company uses high-altitude balloons in the stratosphere at an altitude of 18 km (11 mi) to 25 km (16 mi) to create an aerial wireless network with up to 4G-LTE speeds.
- The signal travels through the balloon network from balloon to balloon, then to a ground-based station connected to an Internet service provider (ISP), then onto the global Internet.
- The system aims to bring Internet access to remote and rural areas poorly served by existing provisions, and to improve communication during natural disasters to affected regions.
- A large segment of population in India is still not using internet. The digital divide is huge and it is affecting the quality of life and governance.
- The initiative of Bharat-Net (NOFN) is stuck up because of land acquisition issue. Project loon cn solve this problem as it does not need land for operation.
- In wake of these two projects by global giants can help in great way in providing last mile connectivity.
Thus this project can provide much needed digital connectivity to rural and hilly regions of India that will lead to economic and social development.
4.Do you think that every country needs to have ethical guiding principles? Which guiding principles does India follow? Discuss with examples. (GS Paper-4, Ethics) (250 words)
|Structure of the Answer
· Explain the need of ethical guiding principles for a country
· Discuss the ethical guiding principles that India follows
Reference: Lexicon for Ethics, Integrity & Aptitude
Major changes in communication and information technology; great and rapid progress in transportation; international institutions and agreements; strong commitments to globalization, etc., have resulted to a significant economic and financial interconnectedness between nations and markets, which in effect have created a “borderless world”
Capital, Technology, and Information do not have nationalities anymore. They flow essentially freely in and out through national borders.
Due to these rapid changes every nation is working for national interest and following some specific principles for maintaining peace and security in the world.
The ethical stance of a country can have an effect on its rate of development. Hence, India as a developing country should focus on and be aware of the ethical codes and guidelines in public and private organizations, as well as minimize wrong-doings.
Ethical behaviours which should be emulated need to be portrayed instead of negative behaviours being emphasized.
The ethical guiding principles that India follows are:
- Members of the society have equal access to power.
- All members enjoy universally recognized freedoms and liberties.
- Regular elections that are free and fair both in terms of procedure (that the elections are held in a way that guarantees free and fair elections) and in substance.
- Principle of Non-violence.
- Non-interference in other nation’s internal matters. India does not interfere in the internal or external affairs of any other State. Consequently, armed intervention and all other forms of interference or attempted threats against the personality of the State or against its political, economic and cultural elements are in violation of international laws.
- Providing positive discrimination to the vulnerable section of society.
- India co-operate with other nation, irrespective of the differences in their political, economic and social systems, in the various spheres in order to maintain peace and security and to promote welfare of general people.
The principle of non-violence is at the root of Indian philosophy along with secularism and welfare of people. Hence even in this rapid changing society India is following the above stated principles.
As the violence and instability is increasing in the world, thus for maintaining peace in society development of ethical standards at societal level is must. India’s ethical principles are in tune to the present need of the society as it takes care of maintenance of internal as well as external peace in the society.
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