1.The Battle of Plassey was one of the major steps that brought England to dominate and conquer India. Discuss. (GS Paper-1, History) (250 words)
Structure of the Answer
· Discuss how Battle of Plassey helped British
· Deal in your Answer about how Plassey was one of the major steps that brought England to dominate and conquer India.
The victory of British East India Company in the Battle of Plassey is one of the important landmark in India History. The Battle of Plassey revealed the utterly corrupt political situation in Bengal. Mir Jafar became a mere ‘puppet ruler’ and the power rested with the British. On every matter he depended on the English.
The Battle of Plassey paved the way for beginning of their empire. The British enjoyed the tax benefits, had to compete with no rival foreign merchants and began to use the revenue of Bengal for protecting their military and trade interest. Mir Jafar gave 24 Parganas and one crore of rupees to the Company and valuable Siraj presents to the English officers including Clive. It depleted the state exchequer. So much wealth was drained from Bengal that the economy was completely shattered. This is known as the Plassey Plunder.
With the wealth of Bengal the British secured their business and political supremacy. The Battle of Plassey was one of the major steps that brought England to dominate and conquer India. It was not only a battle with local authorities but part of the rivalry with France over available markets.
However, European colonial expansion was a part of an even bigger phenomenon that would bind the peoples and cultures of the world together through dissemination of technology and sharing among cultures. In years to come it would bring the Western colonialists to some awareness of their spiritual responsibility for other nations for example, no matter how wide was the gap between the rich and poor in the West, in the East it was even wider. In this respect, the Battle of Plassey can be seen as one step in a sad but necessary process. However, the method of colonial conquest cannot be accepted in this age, when the peoples of the world recognize their interdependence and the need to establish a world of mutual prosperity and shared values, by peaceful means.
2.Compare the institutions of speaker in India and Britain. Should office of speaker in India be modeled on its British counterpart? (GS Paper-2, Polity) (250 words)
Structure of the Answer
· Compare institution of speaker in Indian and UK
· Conclude with your opinion
Reference– NCERT/ Laxmikanth
The office of the Speaker occupies a pivotal position in our parliamentary democracy. The Speaker is the guardian of the traditions of parliamentary democracy. He is final interpreter of constitution within the house. In the Warrant of Precedence he stands next only to the President, the Vice-President and the Prime Minister. The expenses of the office are charged on the Consolidated Fund of India.
The Constitution, the Rules of Procedure and Conduct of Business in Lok Sabha and practices and conventions vest adequate powers in speaker and protect the independence and impartiality of the office.
But, in recent times office of speaker has been criticized for not being impartial and neutral in some instances.
Comparison of Indian speaker with speaker in Britain:
- Speaker in Britain is politically impartial. On election the new Speaker resigns from the political party and remains separate from political issues even in retirement. In contrast Speaker in India belongs to majority party.
- In Britain, principle of “Once a Speaker always a Speaker” is followed. Once a member of House of Commons is elected as Speaker, he is virtually allowed to continue in office by repeatedly electing him as the speaker so long he wishes to continue in the office.
- Thus, in a general election, Speakers do not campaign on any political issues but simply stand as ‘the Speaker seeking re-election’ and is elected unopposed from that parliamentary constituency.
- Conventionally speaker in UK is unanimously elected in house (only one candidate contests). The ruling party nominates a candidate after consulting opposition parties. This is to show that; speaker is “Man of the House” and not representative of any political party.
- Speaker in India has only “casting vote.” In UK he can vote in the first instance. But to show neutrality he neither participates in discussions nor votes in first instance. Thus, practically only casting vote enjoyed.
- Speaker in UK is most powerful presiding officer of the lower houses in the world. His powers are immense in comparison to Lok Sabha Speaker. To maintain decorum and check unparliamentarily behavior, speaker in UK can name any member of the house. Which means member shall vacate the house. He also has powers to suspnd the members.
Thus, to bring neutrality and to arrest the decline of Indian parliament, office of Lok Sabha Speaker as well as speaker of legislative assemblies in states can be modeled on the office of speaker in House of Commons in UK.
2.India’s borders are still vulnerable to cross-border terrorism, infiltration and exfiltration of armed militants and insurgents, narcotics and arms smuggling, illegal migration, left-wing extremism and separatist movements aided by external powers. Discuss the in proper management of our borders. (GS Paper-3, Security) (250 words)
Structure of the Answer
· Discuss the challenges in border management
· Give example to illustrate
· Also discuss about coastline security challenges
Reference– NCERT/ www.idsa.in
India shares border with Bangladesh, China, Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan and Bangladesh. Border management is a security function that calls for coordination and concerted action by various government agencies within our country. The aim is to secure our frontiers and safeguard our nation from the risks involved in the movement of goods and people from India to other countries and vice versa.
Border management itself is a multifaceted term and may include, but is not limited to, the regulation of legal and illegal immigration, ensuring safe and secure movement of authorised people and goods, and prevention of smuggling, human trafficking and infiltration.
Due to vulnerable borders, India has witnessed numerous cross-border terrorist attacks.
The challenge of long-standing boundary and territorial disputes, some of which are legacy issues, coupled with difficult terrain, extreme climatic conditions and porosity of borders, has rendered India’s Borders vulnerable to several external and internal security threats and made efficient and effective border management a foremost priority for the Indian Government. Managing Indian borders is difficult because of the following factors.
Long border: India has 14,880 kilometres of boundary which is fourth longest (after Russia, China and Brazil). All states except Madhya Pradesh, Chattisgarh, Jharkhand, Delhi, Telangana and Haryana have an international land border or a coast line.
Disputed borders: Unsettled or not fully demarcated land and maritime boundaries, China and Pakistan in particular, pose a major challenge. Frequent cross border firing and terrorist incursions along LoC is a manifestation of unsettled border with Pakistan.
Complex borders: Indian borders run through a variety of ecological milieus- plains, hills and mountains, deserts, riverine territories and marshes, each with its own unique problems. For example, India-Pakistan border runs from the hot Thar Desert in Rajasthan to the cold Himalayas in Jammu and Kashmir. Similarly, the India-Myanmar boundary is along the lush tropical forests where as Indo-Bangladesh boundary is dissected by ever-shifting riverbeds.
Porous borders: India shares unprotected border with Bhutan and Nepal. Further, Myanmar border is not completely fenced. Anti-state elements such as ULFA, NSCN take advantage of this reality.
Unstable neighbours: India’s neighbourhood is in turmoil undergoing political and economic instability like Nepal, Myanmar, and Afghanistan, Pakistan. Further, Pakistan’s policy of proxy war using terrorists along LoC is a major challenge.
Unfriendly border population: Sense of alienation among the people residing along the border areas particularly in the North Eastern states such as Nagas, Meitis, etc.
Weak Institutional mechanisms for coordinating intelligence gathering, sharing and intelligence coordination are weak. Border guarding forces are often under resourced, ill equipped and are called upon other duties like disaster management.
Lack of adequate border infrastructure such as roads, border posts, flood lighting, communication networks, etc. make the task difficult to the border security forces.
India’s entire coastline is extremely vulnerable to various kinds of illegal and anti-national activities. Numerous cases of smuggling of goods, gold, narcotics, explosives, arms and ammunition have been reported over the years. The physical proximity of India’s coast to Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Pakistan and Gulf countries adds to its vulnerability. The Indian coast has a number of strategic and industrial installations such as naval bases, nuclear power plants, satellite and missile launching ranges, offshore oil and gas platforms, Special Economic Zones and ports. These strategic installations are vital for the security, development and prosperity of the country, but they are also high value targets for the terrorists.
4.What do you understand by “Tolerance”? Discuss its importance in public service. (GS Paper-4, Ethics) (150 words)
Structure of the Answer
· Introduction: Briefly define tolerance
· Explain the need of tolerance in civil servants
· Give examples to illustrate
Reference: Lexicon’s Ethics
Tolerance means to tolerate or put up with differences. It means showing respect for the race, religion, age, gender, opinions, and ideologies of other people or groups.
- This concept means different things to different people, but it is when something is disagreeable, tolerance is expected, and in more politically correct cultures, it is well
- It does not mean that a person has to accept or embrace words, actions, or ideas that are against his or her values or beliefs. It simply means that each person agrees to respect the other’s right to his or her feelings on the
Need of tolerance in public service
- For public services tolerance is very important because a civil servant takes an oath of allegiance to the Constitution of India at the time of joining service; if he does his job in the spirit of this oath he is bound to work for the rights and advancement of all sections of society equally with respect. This respect fosters a climate and a working environment, sensitive to the needs of
- Tolerance also helps employees build bridges and capitalize on the differences present in the organisation, such as those related to diverse cultural backgrounds. A lack of tolerance thwarts team and nation progress and encourages a breeding ground for misunderstandings and unethical
- Thus, for sound implementation of government programmes and policies, civil servants need to be tolerant and respect differences in the society to make egalitarian
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