1.The birth of the Modern Age in the history of Europe affected not only the lives of the common Europeans, but it brought far-reaching changes in the whole of Europe. Discuss. (GS Paper-1, World History) (250 words)
Structure of the Answer
· Introduction: write about beginning of modern age
· Then point out reasons contributed for the beginning of Modern age
· Disintegration of feudal system.
The beginning of modern age was the disintegration of prevailing social system, feudalism. When Constantinople fell into the hands of the Turks, most of the scholars belonging to Greece took shelter in Italy. The ideas and thoughts of these scholars spread in Italy. Due to this a new wind of knowledge started to blow there. This encouraged perceptive people to question the outmoded attitudes of people and the blind acceptance of orders from the ruling authorities. It asserted the dignity of human beings and the personality of every individual.
The renaissance happened in Europe on the contemporary period marked the beginning of modern era. Renaissance is literally known as Rebirth. The feudal system collapsed as a result of renaissance and the reformist movements and also the socio economic changes happened in feudal society contributed for the disintegration of feudal system.
Reformation is a movement against certain practices of the Catholic Church and authority of pope. Reformation led to the Rise of Protestantism and the setting up of protestant churches from the early 16th century and also led to the catholic reformation/ Counter Reformation.
Reasons contributed for the beginning of Modern age:
- Series of voyages and discovery which lead to find New Lands.
- Ideology of nation state emerged which led the subjugation of feudal lords and it also ignored the authority of pope.
- The rulers emerged as absolutist (with king emerging as absolute rulers).
Disintegration of feudal system
- Development of new cities as centres of manufacturing hub.
- Development of a new class known as middle class.
- Role played by money over wealth.
- Pattern of trade across the globe had changed because of the discovery of new lands.
- Development of factory system and subsequently the emergence of the working class.
- Money for work helped the peasants to pay back the debt to the feudal landlord in terms of money instead of labour. And it freed them from the control of feudal land lord.
2.Explain the “federal scheme” under the government of India Act, 1935. Why could this scheme not be implemented? (GS Paper-2, Polity) (250 words)
Structure of the Answer
· Then explain federal scheme
· Give reasons for non-implementation of federal scheme
The Government of India Act 1935 was an act of British Parliament which was based on Simon Commission Report and discussions at three Round Table Conferences. The Act introduced federal system of government at the centre and autonomy at the Provincial level and abolished Diarchy.
- The Act proposed to set up All Indian Federation comprising of the British Indian Provinces and Princely States. The constituent units of the Federation were 11 Governor’s provinces, 6 Chief Commissioner’s provinces and all those states that agreed to joint it. The States were absolutely free to join or not to join the proposed Federation.
- In provinces Diarchy was abolished and Provincial Autonomy was introduced. There was no Reserve Subjects and no Executive Council in the provinces. The Council of Ministers was to administer all the provincial subjects except in certain matters like law and orders etc.
- The federal scheme divided subjects between the centre and the provinces by introducing three lists i.e. Federal list, Provincial list and Concurrent Legislative Lists. The residuary subjects lied with Governor General.
- The proposed federal legislature was bicameral body consisting of the Council of States (Upper House) and the Federal Assembly (Lower House). The strength of the Upper House(Council of States) was 260. Out of 260 members 156 were to represent the provinces and 104 to the native Indian states.
- The India Act 1935 also provided for the establishment of a Federal Court to adjudicate inter-states disputes and matters concerning the interpretation of the constitution. It was however, not the final court of appeal. In certain cases the appeals could be made to the Privy Council in England.
The federal scheme was introduced with number of objectives by the British Parliament:
- Win the support of moderate nationalists since their formal aim was a Dominion status for India.
- Ensuring that the Congress could never rule alone or gain enough seats to bring down the government. This was done by over-representing the Princes.
- By provincial autonomy, Britain hoped to prove that Indians are incapable of ruling themselves. Also, rise of provincial leaders would disintegrate Congress, the only national party, into a series of provincial fiefdoms.
- British also aimed to use Princes in their favour to counterbalance congress.
But, federal scheme never came into existence because-
- Unlike the provincial portion of the Act, the Federal portion was to go into effect only when half the States join federation. This never happened due to opposition from rulers of the princely states.
- The establishment of the Federation was indefinitely postponed after the outbreak of the Second World War.
- Further, no significant group in India including Congress accepted the Federal portion of the Act.
The remaining parts of the Act came into force in 1937, when the first elections under the act were held.
But, we can say that the Government of India Act 1935 marks a point of no return in the history of constitutional development in India. The federal structure of Constitution of India derives its provisions largely from the 1935 Act.
3.Cyberspace is evolving to become fifth potential theatre of war along with land, sea, air and space. However, there are several reasons that complicate the task of securing cyberspace compared to the other theatres of conflict.” Explain. (GS Paper-3, Security) (250 words)
Structure of the Answer
· Introduction: Explain cyberspace
· Then discuss the challenges in securing cyberspace
Cyberspace is the term used to describe the virtual world of computer networks. Cyber security involves securing the physical infrastructure (undersea cables, fiber networks, data servers, etc.) that enables usage of communication networks and protecting the data that is stored, and transmitted through these networks. The task is particularly complex for the security services as cyberspace differs from other conventional arenas of conflict in the following ways:
- The national territory (land, air and sea) that is being defended by the military forces is well defined. Cyberspace is inherently international. It has no boundaries to defend.
- In cyberspace, it is very easy for an attacker to cover his tracks and even mislead the target into believing that the attack has come from somewhere else. This difficulty in identifying the perpetrator makes it difficult to rely on the capacity to retaliate as a deterrent.
- The costs of mounting an attack are very modest. The above two factors make cyberspace an ideal vehicle for states and non-state actors to pursue their war aims.
- The technologies that are used in cyberspace are still very new and are evolving rapidly. Hence, investing in technological capacities to keep track of global developments, developing countermeasures and staying ahead of the competition is as central to the defence of cyberspace.
- Lack of adequate specialised workforce to ensure cyber security is another problem. In the recent past, besides Internet, many networks facilitating governance, financial institutions, security and service delivery have been setup like NATGRID, SWAN, NKN, NOFN, etc. Hence, it is imperative that our Government takes all necessary steps to secure the cyberspace. The recent implementation of cyber security policy and digital army are steps in right direction.
Extremist movements are increasingly using cyber tools as a force multiplier including propaganda, scare-tactics, recruitment and fundraising with such ease that policy makers, military leaders and intelligence agencies are struggling to keep pace. The world needs a policy framework to address issues ranging from pre-emption and deterrence to rules of modern conflict.
4.Discuss the various sources through which humans can judge the correctness of their actions. In the context of public life discuss how these sources are important in offering a clear and practical guidance. (GS Paper-4, Ethics) (250 words)
|Structure of the Answer
· Discuss law and conscience as sources by which humans can judge the correctness of their actions.
· Then discuss their role in public life.
· Conclude by emphasizing the desirability of these sources in ethical decision making.
Reference: Lexicon’s Ethics
Laws and conscience are the two sources of guidance by which human beings can judge the morality of their actions. These sources are particularly important to public administrators in offering a clear and practical guidance.
1) Law, rules and regulations
Laws have a moral connotation. It induces people to act or restrains them from acting and imposes an obligation. It must not only be just, but also burdens equally. Also, it is for common, not private good.
Regulations often help clarify laws. Unlike laws, rules need not be for the common good and can be for the private good. For example, rules made within an organization for efficient utilization of resources etc.
It is a person’s moral sense of right and wrong, viewed as acting as a guide to one’s behavior. Law states a general rule concerning actions; conscience lays down a practical rule for specific action. Conscience applies the law or rule to specific actions; therefore it is wider than law.
Importance in offering a clear and practical guidance
- In considering right and wrong, public administrators have at their disposal information on the nature of the action performed or about to be performed, the circumstances surrounding the action and the purpose of the action. Laws, rules and regulations provide additional guidance to these.
- Sometimes rules circumvent what the civil law clearly states. While a superior can punish a subordinate for violating such rules, if the rule is contrary to civil or natural law, the violator may have acted ethically. Hence, rules violating natural or civil laws should be avoided.
- It is often recognized that rules and regulations alone are insufficient for public administrators. Without a conscience to apply those laws and rules to particular actions, public administrators miss a critical element. Conscience helps in applying the laws, rules and other criteria of morality to specific actions.
- All public administrators have to make discretionary decisions where conscience plays an important role.
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