1.Discuss the problems associated with fisheries sector. Explain with examples. (GS Paper-1, Geography) (250 words)
Structure of the Answer
· Discuss the various issues related with fisheries
· Also point out indirect problems in fisheries sector
World fish production has remained static during the last 20 years despite the increased use of modern fishing fleets and factory ships that can process the catch in mid-ocean. Populations of the traditional food fishes have been falling dramatically because of over-fishing.
Only by switching to unfamiliar species, many of which are used only for animal feed and fertilizer, the volume of the catch has been maintained.
The main critical gaps / challenges for fisheries development include the following:
- Fishes becoming extinct: It is estimated that 20% of the world’s freshwater fish fauna is extinct or in danger of extinction, and that in Mediterranean climates this figure may be as high as 65%.
- Loss of fish-diversity: Although the causes differ from one biogeographical area to another, losses of fish diversity have largely resulted from habitat degradation, species introductions and
- Habitat degradation, widely regarded as the single greatest threat to fish diversity, arises not only from changes in land use (e.g. deforestation) but also as a result of pollution and eutrophication, changes in hydrological regimes and global climate
- Habitat destruction causes reductions in species ranges, increasing the vulnerability of populations to extinction.
- Pollution: Pollutants can affect fish population by reducing food intake, growth and reproductive Pollution has also affected the quality of the catch. Some important species have been found to have acquired dangerous levels of poisonous pollutants through bio-concentration (biomagnification).
- Introduction of new fish variety: accidental or new fisheries or aquaculture development, have been widespread, resulting in habitat destruction and extinction of local species or populations through competition or predation. This problem is particularly apparent in fresh
- Neglect of conservation of fisheries: The conservation of aquatic biodiversity remains comparatively neglected and there has been less effort on the conservation of fish than any other vertebrate group. Fisheries resource is taken for granted by the people living particularly in coastal areas. They think fisheries as a resource to exploit to the maximum for their food
- Other Problems: Other fisheries related problems include:
- poor governance,
- weak fisheries management regimes,
- conflicts over the use of natural resources,
- the persistent use of poor fishery and aquaculture practices,
- a failure to incorporate the priorities and rights of small-scale fishing communities, and
- injustices relating to gender discrimination and child.
2.What is right wing politics? Discuss the possible reasons for rising right wing politics in several countries of the world. (GS Paper-2, Polity) (250 words)
Structure of the Answer
· Define what is right wing politics in brief
· Mention the reasons for its rise
· Conclude by giving your opinion the issue
Reference– Laxmikanth/ Current Affairs
Over the past few years, right wing political parties seem to have gained prominence and have made major gains in divisive elections throughout the West. BREXIT in the UK and the Presidential election results in the USA demonstrate the rising popularity of right-wing politics in various parts of the world. It is also gaining strength in countries like France, Greece and Germany.
Right Wing Politics
Right wing politics is based on a brand of nationalism that is conservatism of true identity and culture of a state. They are progressive in economic ideas. They also believe in assertive foreign policy considering their own territorial, diplomatic and economic interests as supreme. They often advocate majoritarianism in extreme cases.
Reasons for its rise:
The rise and popularity of right-wing politics can be categorized into economic and non- economic factors.
1. Non Economic factors
- The sudden influx of refugees in the western world has caused tremendous disequilibrium in western countries. This has led to the increased feeling of nationalism in their
- Global terror attacks have also increased the feeling of xenophobia among the developed
- Immigration from developing countries is perceived as a threat to the culture and economic opportunities by the developed
2. Economic factors
- Many Western countries have followed a policy of neo-liberalism for the last few decades. A combination of privatization, deregulation including financial deregulation, free trade and globalization characterize neo-liberalism. Benefits of these policies have not reached to all the sections of the
Thus, the gap between have and have-nots has increased, especially after the financial crisis of 2008-09.
- Automation and globalization have mostly benefited multinational companies. Higher automation and hiring of people from other countries reduces the number of jobs for the local citizens of the developed
- Outsourcing: Companies in developed countries moved their production processes to low-wage countries leading to more unemployment in their own
All these have increased inequity and inequality in the world. The beneficiaries of globalization, outsourcing and automation have included the multi-national companies and large corporations. Middle and lower classes in the developed world has suffered because of it. This has led to the development of feeling of conservatism in the world. Recently it was seen in the USA when the government put curbs on H1B visa. Thus, disillusionment and resentment with neo- liberalism, globalization and insufficient social programs have contributed to rise of right wing politics.
Politics is a battle of ideas and it thrives on healthy debate. Every political party, be it right, left or centre has something to offer. At present, right wing parties seem to have gained the trust of their citizens in some parts of the world. However, it must be ensured that this does not give rise to a feeling of extreme nationalism for which institutions like United Nations must encourage discussions at global level.
3.What does glacial harvesting mean? What are the mechanisms and means of glacial harvesting and problems of implementation? (GS Paper-3, Environment) (250 words)
Structure of the Answer
· Introduction: Explain glacial harvesting
· Then discuss the mechanism of glacial harvesting
· Also highlight the problems of implementation
Glacial Harvesting refers to construction of artificial glaciers in a system where melt-water is diverted to shady areas through iron pipes in winter, and trapped by an embankment. Once trapped, the water freezes naturally, forming glaciers that can hold about 10 lakh cubic feet of ice, enough to irrigate about 200 hectares of land.
India’s receding glaciers could disappear altogether by 2030, affecting water supply to millions of Indians.
Mechanism of Harvesting
- Artificial glaciers’ are created by diverting meltwater to a shady area through iron pipes in the winter, and reducing its velocity by putting up an embankment.
- Passing through the iron pipes, the water freezes naturally forming ‘glaciers’ that can hold about 10 lakh cubic feet of ice, enough to irrigate about 200 hectares of land. (According to the national average, 200 hectares could mean a yield of 800 -1000 tonnes of wheat).
- By early March, the start of the summer, the temperature starts to rise, thereby melting the ‘glaciers’. This water trickles into the reservoir, form where it can be channeled to the fields for irrigation or supply clean water to the villages below.
- Depending on the size, it can cost between Rs 3 lakh and Rs 10 lakh to build such a glacier.
Prospects, Potential and Problems
- With rainfall and snowfall becoming more erratic, one of the main advantages of artificial glaciers is that they supply water long before the actual glaciers start to melt in May and June. And the farmers can still save their crops.
- But artificial glaciers need regular maintenance, since boulders can fall into distribution channels (owing to steep terrain) and block the flow of water in summer. The embankments can also be damaged and destroyed in floods and snowstorms. 4. How does conscience act as a self-regulatory mechanism? What mechanism can be used to promote collective conscience of the nation? (GS Paper-4, Ethics) (150 words)
Structure of the Answer
· Briefly define Conscience and its self-regulatory mechanism
· Then discuss the mechanisms to promote national conscience
Reference: Lexicon’s Ethics
Conscience is defined as an innate faculty present in all human beings that serves as a moral compass in times of great moral uncertainty; it is the knowledge of the ‘good’ which comes not from a calculative approach but is based on an affirmation of principles, regardless of the loss of interest or valuables.
It acts as a self-regulatory mechanism when perfect knowledge of the right action is not discernable through empirical and scientific means; this intuition guides the path toward right action.
- Many schools of thought have argued upon the existence of a set of uniform innate moral codes imbedded in all human beings by nature, if this is true then national conscience must be constructed upon the foundation of these innate moral principles like probity, respect, harmony, compassion, tolerance etc. since a nation is nothing but an individual writ large.
- The primary mechanism for constructing such collective conscience is ‘education’ which must inculcate the abovementioned facts along with the examples of great moral individuals from all walks of life into the syllabus and curriculum.
- Art is also one of the main propagators of value throughout the ages and is the main component of cultivating values in individuals by enlivening a sense of beauty and goodness.
- Other more impactful means like propaganda through mass communication about constitutional positions regarding the importance of exercise of tolerance, impartiality and justness; the teachings of religions that preach exercise of self-restraint; imposing obligations through law, can also be employed.
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