1.What are the other factors which influence the location of footloose industries? Discuss in the context of India. (GS Paper-1, Geography) (250 words)
Structure of the Answer
· Briefly discuss about footloose industries and their characteristics
· Elaborate the factors responsible for location of footloose industries
· Give some examples in Indian context
Footloose industries are those industries whose location is not influenced strongly by access either to material or markets, and which can therefore operate within a very wide range of locations and nearly remain indifferent with locational aspects of industry.
These industries usually requires a very small production space, are usually less polluting and but require highly skilled workers. Some examples of these industries are Information technology and IT enabled services, diamond and precious stone cutting, precision electronics goods, High tech electronics and automotive firms etc.
Footloose industries are generally tertiary or quaternary industries and are not tied to raw materials and therefore don’t have such strict location requirements. Because of this they might look for more human factors like skilled labour, good housing and recreational facilities and access to capital.
- Transport and communication links is one of the most important factors, as it is important to be close to good roads and rail links so that industries can receive supplies and distribute products.
- Government policies –are instrumental in creating each set of local conditions and influence their location in terms of favourable legislation, tax concession (providing tax holidays), grants and loans, promotional benefits etc. or there can be unfavourable conditions too e.g. land use zoning, pollution control and high profit tax. Even international relations can also influence their functioning.
- Cheap and Skilled Labour is one more very important factor determining location of footloose, as they are established where they get comparative advantage in terms of cheap and skilled labour. If we see examples of industries related with electronics and ITeS; they requires skilled labour and most of these industries are concentrated in the highly urbanized areas like Delhi, Chennai, Hyderabad, Bangalore, Pune etc. as most of the technical institutions are located in proximity and supply cheap and highly skilled labour force to them.
- Capital availability and ancillary services is another important factor, as it needed to start a business and provides basic input. Generally these industries tend to develop where financial services are easily accessible.
- Availability of infrastructure and agglomeration, related infrastructure and provisioning services are dealt through government policies and advantage of cheaper land, energy supplies, and other costs of doing business attract them. Like in the case of precious stone cutting (concentrated in Jaipur and Surat) they need reliable electricity and water supply as they are for all industries a constant electricity supply is essential because industries can’t afford breaks in production. Further agglomeration will decrease cost of production by external economies of scale.
- Amenities: A highly skilled workforce tends to be mobile and workers are attracted by good quality housing, leisure facilities etc.
- Land Prices: Increasing land prices effects the location and now these footloose industries are establishing on the edge of cities as land is often cheaper there than in the centre. The out of town surroundings and easy access to workers in the suburbs provides an ideal location for these industries.
2.Aadhar Act 2016 intends to empower the government in providing targeted services to the intended beneficiaries. How can use of Aadhar help in tackling corruption and achieving outcomes of various welfare schemes? (GS Paper-2, Polity) (250 words)
Structure of the Answer
· Brief introduction on importance of Aadhar Act
· Explain how Aadhar can reduce corruption
Reference– Current Affairs
The government has been offering many kinds of subsidies and monetary payments to the economically weak. But as these payments trickle down from the Centre, via a long chain of intermediaries to the final beneficiary a lot of it is lost in corruption, leakages and bribes. The government is now keen to reduce these leakages by crediting subsidies directly into the bank accounts of the recipients through its JAM initiative (Jan Dhan bank account-Aadhar number-Mobile number).
Aadhar act was passed by the parliament in 2016. The act provides statutory backing to the Aadhar. Now central government has made Aadhar compulsory for a number of schemes like MGNREGA payments, PDS food grains, central scholarship scheme, EPF pension scheme, subsidies for cooking gas etc.
The use of Aadhar is set to improve outcomes of various welfare schemes:
- Adoption of Direct Benefits Transfer (DBT) will lead to reduction in administrative costs for various schemes.
- Aadhar will eliminate ghost beneficiaries to a large extent reducing leakages to a large extend. In 2014-15 elimination of ghost beneficiaries due to introduction of DBT for subsidized LPG cylinders saved government Rs. 12500 cr.
- Aadhar can reduce exclusion. If Aadhar is linked to SECC data then schemes for SECC will be well targeted.
- Use of Aadhar will ensure timely delivery of benefits. After procurement of food grains farmers can be paid immediately through use of Aadhar. This can be facilitated through Aadhar linked bank accounts.
- A large number of schemes of government are for empowerment of women like Sukanya Samridhi Yojna, Beti Bachao Beti Padhao Scheme, Indira Gandhi Matritva Sahyog Yojana (IGMSY) etc can transfer benefits directly to the accounts of women. This will reduce diversion of funds by male members and help in empowerment of women.
- It will reduce leakages as number of agencies through which funds have to be passed is greatly reduced.
Considering the increasing acceptance of Aadhaar for various government benefits, it will reduce middlemen and thus leakages.
3.What is mass coral bleaching? Discuss the factors responsible for coral bleaching. (GS Paper-3, Environment) (250 words)
Structure of the Answer
· Explain the phenomenon of mass coral bleaching
· Explain the factors of coral bleaching
Although coral cover less than 1 per cent of the earth’s surface, coral reefs have deposited limestone structures that are home to an estimated one-half to two million species. Ultimately, the ability of coral reefs to support such productivity largely depends on the symbiotic relationship between corals and microscopic algae, zooxanthellae, which live within their tissues.
Corals are strongly dependent on their zooxanthellae, which provide up to 90 per cent of their energy requirements. However, stressful conditions can cause this relationship to break down, resulting in dramatic decreases in the densities of zooxanthellae within the coral tissue. Because the zooxanthellae also provide much of the colour in a coral’s tissue, their loss leaves the tissue transparent, revealing the bright white skeleton beneath and giving the coral the appearance of having been ‘bleached’.
At a local scale, many stressors may cause corals to bleach, including storms, disease, sedimentation, cyanide fishing, herbicides, heavy metals, and changes in salinity and temperature. The primary cause of regional, or mass, bleaching events is increased sea temperatures. Sea temperature increases of 1-2 degree C above the long term average maximum are all that are required to trigger mass bleaching. Both the intensity and duration of temperature anomalies are important in determining the timing and severity of bleaching responses. Higher temperatures can cause bleaching over a shorter exposure time, while lower temperatures require longer exposure times.
Factors responsible for coral bleaching are given below:
- Climate change: the rise in sea surface temperature due to El-Nino phenomenon during 1998 caused extensive coral reef bleaching impacting over 40 to 90% of live coral cover.
- Coastal erosion: It is a serious problem faced by the islands every year resulting in loss of land.
- Increasing sedimentation and pollution of water is disturbing the delicate balance of coral and their survival need.
- Population pressure: Changing demographic pattern and lifestyle, coupled with resource harvest from the reefs have brought many reefs to various degrees of stress.
- Developmental activities: Overexploitation and mindless mining of coral reef colonies led to degrading of coral reef.
- Coral tourism: Lakshadweep increasingly being promoted as major tourist destination for sea sports like scuba diving. This results in environmental pollution particularly of sea water.
4.What do you understand by personal and professional ethics? Examine the relationship between personal and professional ethics. Do civil servants have to be ethical in personal life in order to be professionally ethical? Illustrate. (GS Paper-4, Ethics) (250 words)
Structure of the Answer
· Explain the meaning of personal and professional ethics
· Examine the relationship between professional and personal ethics.
· Discuss the relationship with respect to civil servant
Reference: Lexicon’s Ethics
- These involve your morals and values.
- They are instilled generally, during childhood, by your parents, family, and friends.
- They relate to your deep-rooted principles, and how religiously you follow them determines the kind of person you are.
- The nature of your personal ethics depend on whether your principles have an optimistic effect on the people surrounding you, i.e., your strict adherence to your principles must not spoil someone else’s life; a negative impact on society due to your principles violates the very reason you are following them.
Speaking truth, respecting elders etc. are few examples of personal ethics.
- These involve a strict code of conduct laid down at the workplace.
- Professional ethics involve adherence to rules and regulations.
- Non-compliance to such rules may risk your reputation, as your behaviour will immediately be reported as brash and unprofessional.
- Your personal views and concerns about any topic will not be of much help in a corporate setting, how well you follow the protocol of the company is what will matter here.
Honesty, Integrity, Transparency, Accountability, Objectivity etc. are few examples of professional ethics.
If person is lacking in his personal conduct it will question his public acts as well. Further, lack of integrity in personal life sets the demand for close relationship between personal and professional ethics as well e.g. an honest and upright administrator will always inspire people to maintain harmony between both the spheres of life.
Individual’s personal and professional lives are two sides of the same coin. Even Gandhi observed that we cannot do right in one aspect of life whilst indulging in wrong acts in other. According to him life is an indivisible whole. Any distinction between public and private conduct is considered artificial. The close relationship between two spheres of life stems from following reasons:
- Certain values like honesty, respect, empathy, trust, equality and efficiency etc. which are considered to equally guide our actions in both professional and private sphere e.g. if want interpersonal trust of friendship to be reflected in our relationship with government.
- Civil administrators are increasingly became public figures in age of media.
- Our world is moving toward integration of work and life due to availability of technical knowhow.
Since the boundaries between professional and personal life is shrinking in contemporary lives, it is imperative for civil administrator to cherish same values which forms the ethical basis of civil administration job. For example-
- If anyone value honesty and commitment in personal relationship, he/she is more likely to value them in professional life also.
- If a person is hard working and punctual in his personal life; he/she will reflect diligence and punctuality in his work as well.
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