1.What are the different factors that affect the location of Industries? Explain with examples. (GS Paper-1, Geography) (250 words)
Structure of the Answer
· Introduction- Main reason for different location
· Point out different factors that influence industrial location
· Give examples to illustrate
Reference – NCERT
Industries maximise profits by reducing costs. Therefore, industries should be located at points where the production costs are minimum. Some of the factors influencing industrial locations are as under:
- Access to Market
- The existence of a market for manufactured goods is the most important factor in the location of industries. ‘Market’ means people who have a demand for these goods and also have the purchasing power to be able to purchase from the sellers at a place.
- The developed regions of Europe, North America, Japan and Australia provide large global markets as the purchasing power of the people is very high.
- Access to Raw Material
- Raw material used by industries should be cheap and easy to transport. Industries based on cheap, bulky and weight-losing material are located close to the sources of raw material such as steel, sugar, and cement industries.
- Perishability is a vital factor for the industry to be located closer to the source of the raw material. Agro-processing and dairy products are processed close to the sources of farm produce or milk supply respectively.
- Access to Labour Supply
Labour supply is an important factor in the location of industries. Some types of manufacturing still require skilled labour. Increasing mechanisation, automation and flexibility of industrial processes have reduced the dependence of industry upon the labours.
- Access to Sources of Energy
- Industries which use more power are located close to the source of the energy supply such as the aluminium industry.
- Earlier coal was the main source of energy, today hydroelectricity and petroleum are also important sources of energy for many industries.
- Access to Transportation and Communication Facilities
- Speedy anries benefit from nearness to a leader-industry and other industries. These benefits are termed as agglomeration economies. Savings are derived from the linkages which exist between different industries.
These factors operate together to determine industrial location.
2.What is the strategic importance of Africa to India in socio-economic and political terms? (GS Paper-2, International Relations) (150 words)
Structure of the Answer
· Discuss the socio-economic and political interests of India in Africa
· Highlight the relationship between India- Africa
Presently, Africa is seen as “Land of Opportunity” from Indian perspective. India has various socio-economic and political interests in Africa:
- India’s trade with Africa amounted to US$71 billion in 2014-15 and is growing fast.
- Africa is also a huge market for India’s manufactured goods.
- Africa’s vast stretches of unutilized arable land can contribute to India’s food security. Recently India signed MoU to import pulses from Mozambique.
- Africa is emerging as a destination for Indian investments in agriculture, manufacturing as well as service sector. Eg. Under Pan African e-Network project India and the African Union seeks to connect the 53 countries.
- Africa can contribute to India’s Energy security in light of the discovery of large reserves off Africa’s east coast.
- India is cooperating with African Union for permanent seat at UNSC. Support of Africa is important of India’s claim.
- India Africa relation is example of South-South cooperation. Both are cooperating at various platforms like NAM, India Africa Forum Summit, IBSA and BRICS.
- Problems faced by India and Africa about Food security, IPR protection (eg. generic medicine) and labour laws are similar. Thus, cooperation at WTO is important.
- Proximity to Middle East, West Asia and terrorism in its own continent make India and Africa natural partners for tackling terrorism, radicalization and piracy in Indian Ocean.
- Both Africa as well as India enjoy demographic dividend. Effective political cooperation can help them realise the potential of this dividend.
There is thus large potential for creating win-win situation for both as Africa also needs India in equal proportions.
Q.3The Government has set a target of doubling of farmers’ income by the year 2022. In this context, discuss various reforms that are needed to Double farmer’s income (GS Paper-3, Economy) (250 words)
Structure of the Answer
· Give a brief introduction about agriculture condition in India.
· Discuss various measures to double farmer’s income.
· Mention relevant scheme wherever possible
The low and highly fluctuating farm income is causing detrimental effect on the interest in farming and farm investments, and is also forcing more and more cultivators, particularly younger age group, to leave farming. This can cause serious adverse effect on the future of agriculture in the country.
In this background, the goal set to double farmers’ income by 2022-23 is central to promote farmers welfare, reduce agrarian distress and bring parity between income of farmers and those working in non-agricultural professions.
- Increase in production
It is important to improve irrigation efficiency to increase production. Therefore, government has initiated schemes like ‘Per Drop More Crop’, Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchai Yojana, Watershed development projects like Neeranchal.
- Effective use of input cost
For this government has introduced Soil Health Card Scheme, Neem Coated Urea scheme.
- Reduction of post-harvest losses
Government is encouraging farmers to use warehouses and avoid distressed sales. To protect farmers from losses, the government is focusing on storage facilities and integrated cold chains in rural areas.
- Value Addition
The government is also promoting quality through food processing. Pradhan Mantri Kisan Sampada Yojana has been started for this.
- Reforms in Agriculture Marketing
E-NAM was launched in which 455 mandis have been linked to this platform. In addition, the government has circulated model Agricultural Produce Market Committee (APMC) Act, and working on a Model Act to promote contract farming.
- Risk, Security and Assistance
The Government has initiated Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana (PMFBY) to reduce the possible risks and revised the norms for assistance from SDRF and NDRF. Now, the government is providing compensation if at least 33% of the crop is damaged.
- Diversification towards high value crops
Most of the development initiatives and policies for agriculture are implemented by the States. States invest much more than the outlay by the Centre on many development activities, like irrigation. Progress of various reforms related to market and land lease are also State subjects. Therefore, it is essential to mobilise States and UTs to own and achieve the goal of doubling farmers’ income.
4. What do you understand by good governance? What are the barriers to good governance? (GS Paper-4, Ethics) (250 words)
Structure of the Answer
· Define good governance and highlight its different attributes
· Mention barriers to good governance
Reference: ARC report
The concept of “governance” is not new. It is as old as human civilization. Simply put “governance” means: the process of decision-making and the process by which decisions are implemented (or not implemented). Governance can be used in several contexts such as corporate governance, international governance, national governance and local governance.
Good governance has 8 major characteristics. It is participatory, consensus oriented, accountable, transparent, responsive, effective and efficient, equitable and inclusive and follows the rule of law. It assures that corruption is minimized, the views of minorities are taken into account and that the voices of the most vulnerable in society are heard in decision-making. It is also responsive to the present and future needs of society.
Barriers to Good Governance
- The reasons for Governments not being citizen centric can be attributed to the attitude and work of some government servants, the deficiencies in existing institutional structures and also to some citizens.
- While the laws made by the Legislature may be sound and relevant, very often they are not properly implemented by government functionaries. The institutional structure provided at times may be also weak and ill-conceived and thus has neither the capacity nor the resources to implement the laws in letter and spirit.
- The system often suffers from problems of excessive centralization and policies and action plans are far removed from the needs of the citizens. This result in a mismatch between what is required and what is being provided.
- Inadequate capacity building of personnel who are to implement the laws also results in policies and laws not being implemented properly.
- Further, lack of awareness about rights and duties and callous approach to compliance to laws on the part of some of the citizens also create barriers to good governance.
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