1. The Aftermath of World War I saw drastic political, economic, and social change across Europe. Discuss the impact of the World War I on Europe. (GS Paper-1, World History) (250 words)
Structure of the Answer
· Point out political, economic, and social impact of world war on Europe
The human and structural devastation left Europe and the world greatly changed in almost all facets of life, setting the tone for political convulsions throughout the remainder of the century. The elements that greatly affected the 20th century and beyond trace the fall and rise of countries throughout the world.
- The war had weakened Europe so much that it could not re-emerge as an economic and political force. It lost ground to the United States of America.
- Europe faced economic decline, suffered from political crises one after another and lost her prestige in the eyes of the colonial peoples.
- Europe had been the leading economic power in the world. The source of Europe’s economic prosperity was her vast colonies. She depended largely upon the huge income which was being earned from her massive overseas investments. The war had cut off this source considerably. Britain lost more than 25 per cent of her pre-war foreign investment, France nearly 34 per cent and Germany lost almost all.
- Europe yielded much of her ground to the USA, with which her economic relationship reversed from a creditor to debtor. Europe no longer remained the banker and the workshop of the world, which she had been till the beginning of the war.
- The political impact of the war on Europe was also far-reaching. President Wilson’s 14 points and the successful conclusion of the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia unleashed new revolutionary ideas. Consequently, everywhere in the continent the old order came under severe attack. In Europe even the known democratic states had been continuing with restricted franchise.
- The war changed the scenario. Women, who had so far no voting rights in many countries, got the right to vote. The war also initiated the process for the emancipation of women.
- Despotic kingdoms were wiped out from the map of Europe.
- The basic rights of the working people began to be included in the statute books of different countries.
- Last but not the least, was the loss of prestige of Europe in the colonies. Intra-European contradictions and cleavages got exposed. The block pitted against one another and damaged their own prestige irreplaceably.
The collapse of Russia under the pressure of total warfare allowed socialist revolutionaries to seize power and turn communism, only one of the world’s growing ideologies, into a major European force. While the global socialist revolution that Lenin believed was coming never happened, the presence of a huge and potentially powerful communist nation in Europe and Asia changed the balance of world politics.
2.What do you mean by the term of Cold War? Critically discuss the circumstances leading to the beginning of the Cold War. (GS Paper-2, International Relations) (250 words)
Structure of the Answer
· Define cold war
· Briefly highlight the underlying methods of cold war
· Discuss the origin of cold war
Reference– NCERT/ Current Affairs
The term “Cold War” is of recent origin. It has been in use since the Second World War for denoting the non-military hostility between the United States of America (USA) and the former Soviet Union. In course of time it has been used as a concept in international relations. The term Cold War means a state of hostility between nations without actual fighting i.e. non-military hostility.
The concept stands for struggle for supremacy waged by the nations or states through propaganda, economic measures, political manoeuvres, etc. Nations or states, engaged in Cold War do not go for actual war i.e. military action. It is a state of cut-throat competition, but the competing parties remain far away from armed conflict between them. It was a conflict between two ideologies: Capitalism vs. Socialism.
Origin of Cold War
- The origin of the Cold War may be traced back to the 1917 Russian Revolution, which gave birth to a new system. The system came to be known as socialist system, opposed to exploitative capitalist system. Whole of the capitalist world got terror stricken and rallied to crush the new state of the USSR; failing to destroy it they encouraged the emergence of the Nazi power in Germany, so that it might be used against the USSR.
- The USSR made serious efforts to get the Western powers involved in checking the rapid rise of Nazi Germany. But the Western powers did not respond to the USSR’s call.
- Meanwhile the Second World War broke out in 1939. Germany attacked the USSR violating the non-aggression pact between them. The USSR joined the Allied powers and made great contribution to defeat the Axis powers. Despite its sincere efforts to crush the Axis powers, the West always looked at the USSR with deep suspicion.
- The West is alleged to have desired the end of the USSR in the process of fighting against the Nazi led Axis powers.
- After the war the Allies did not hide their fear and hatred towards the USSR which now emerged as one of the superpowers in the world. The USA emerged as another superpower at the end of the Second World War.
- The Wartime Allies including the USSR founded the world body the United Nations (UN) to make the planet safe for peace. But they failed to forestall the local wars because the UN does not have the necessary powers to compel the super or major powers to keep away from encouraging conflicts.
As a result USA and USSSR went on their own ways. They have organised their rival defence organisations, and have gone on reacting to each crisis as per their respective interests. They either have used the world body or have ignored it. The world thus drifted towards the Cold War in the wake of the Second World War.
3.Human resource development is an important condition for improving productivity which holds the key to economic development. Discuss the significance of human capital.(GS Paper-3, Economic Development) (250 words)
Structure of the Answer
· Discuss the significance of human capital in development
Human capital can be defined as the body of knowledge possessed by the population and the capacity of the population to use the knowledge effectively. In the present day, emerging economies like India, the significance of human capital arises from the following:
- 21st century will promote people who respond to technology. It will reject those who refuse to move fast enough.
- There is a technological shift to knowledge-based, brainpower industries. Brain power industries do not have a natural home and can be located anywhere. Smart countries are those who attempt to make them attractive to the brainpower industry by educating their people and creating the required brainpower through education and training.
- In the knowledge economy, the value of intangible assets is increasing and that of tangible assets decreasing. In order to have a cutting edge in this scenario, having only the right kind of technology is not enough – rather a proper organisational climate with the right people competencies is critical.
- Modern physical technology, which is becoming more and more complex, requires the back up of an advanced social technology. Social technology covers all advances in skills acquired by people individually and collectively.
- All the well-known breakthroughs in physical technology would not have been possible if they were not preceded by relevant social innovations. Social innovations foster the birth of more advanced physical technologies, taking them to further matured levels.
- Higher education is believed to promote independence and initiative, both of which are valuable intellectual resources for the generation and dissemination of knowledge in society.
- Available evidence in almost all the countries, including India, establish significant —
- Positive association between proportion of people below the poverty line and the proportion of illiterate persons;
- Negative correlation between female literacy and birth rate;
- Positive correlation between years of schooling and net increase in farm production.
- Poverty is both a cause and consequence of deficiencies in human development. With poverty alleviation at the top of the development agenda, a serious assault on poverty will no doubt bring human beings into focus as the major beneficiaries of development. Increased public spending on aspects of human development is more likely to have a greater impact on poverty reduction and, at the same time, in improving human development.
Indeed, the available empirical evidence testifies that poverty ceases to be a handicap when a poor country builds up human capital and then uses the low cost skilled labour with global capital to produce a competitive skilled work force. The developing economies have already over-taken the developed economies in many fields particularly in the sector of labour-intensive production.
4.What is emotional competency? Discuss the factors that can help identify emotional competency in a person. ( GS Paper-4, Ethics) (250 words)
Structure of the Answer
· Explain emotional competency
· Highlight its relation with emotional intelligence
· Discuss emotional competencies in humans
Reference: Lexicon’s Ethics
Emotional Competency is “A learned capability based on emotional intelligence that results in outstanding performance at work.” Emotional Competencies are job skills that can, and indeed must be learned. An underlying Emotional Intelligence is necessary, though not sufficient, to manifest competency in any one of the four Emotional Intelligence domains, or clusters. Although our emotional intelligence determines our potential for learning the practical skills, our emotional competency shows how much of that potential we have realised by learning and mastering skills and translating these skills into coping strategies of practical life.
Emotional competency thus is an efficiency to deal effectively with several dissociable but related processes. It is a blending of five competencies:
- Adequate Depth of Feeling: It is feeling capable with all reality assumptions associated with effective judgment and personality integration ensuring vigorous participation in living. Example: Having very slight impact of day to day events on oneself.
- Adequate Expression and Control of Emotions: It is to accept emotions and have adequate control over them marked by adequate emotional expressiveness based on fulsome expression and control of emotions. To give an example of this we can say that a person does not lose control at all even on major life incidents.
- Ability to Function with Emotions: It refers to the ability of an individual not to get affected by emotional situations. He maintains adequate mode of functioning in performing daily routine actions properly. For example, even in the conditions of feelings like fear, anxiety, anger the individual will be able to take decisions and does his job properly.
- Ability to cope with Problem Emotions: It is to have understanding of the role of sensitivity and the detrimental effects of problem emotions and resist their harmful effects. To give an example, it may be stated that the fear of strange circumstances does not remain or linger on in the individual.
- Encouragement of positive Emotions: It is to have a high proportion of positive emotions, which show a constructive influence in the dynamics of behaviour to ensure a meaningful and fairly well integrated life. To take an example, let us say that an individual never misses an opportunity to be happy.
An individual is said to be emotionally competent when they possess competent ways of handing the emotions as described in the above components of emotions.
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